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اقتصاد؛ سیاست و حقوق ؛ روابط بین الملل.

حقوق بین الملل خصوصی
تعریف:
بر اساس مفهوم حقوق در یکی از معانی حقوق ،حقوق عبارتست از علم حقوق یعنی دانشی که موضوع بخش قواعد و مقررات است اگر این معنی را در نظر بگیریم می توانیم بگوییم که حقوق رشته ای از علم حقوق است که از روابط خصوصی اشخاص در سطح بین الملل صحبت می کند .این تعریف مد نظر ما نیست برای اینکه موضوعات و طرح در حقوق را با معنای دیگر حقوق تعریف می کند .مثلاً حقوق مدنی،اداری ،اساسی برای اینها نمی توان گفت که رشته ای از علم حقوق است .
مفهوم نوعی حقوق:
مجموعه قواعد و مقررات که روابط خصوصی اشخاص را در جامعه مد نظرقرار می دهد با توجه به این مفهوم (مقررات)در تعریف بین الملل خصوصی می توان گفت ج ب خ مجموعه قواعد و مقرراتی است که روابط خصوصی افراد را در سطح بین الملل تنظیم می کند .اولاً باید گفت هر جا جامعه ای باشد به ناچار باید حقوق هم در جامعه شکل بگیرد .اجتماع متشکل از روابط است کتشکل از اشخاص مستقل نظیست .جامعهئ مجموعه ای از اشخاص به هم پیوسته است بنابراین در جامعه ای برای تنظیم روابط فرد با فرد –فرد با دوست نیازمند قوانین است که ما آن را حقوق داخلی (ایران،آلمان و ...)می شناسیم.
حقوق:
1-داخلی:
1-خصوصی¬رابطه فرد با فرد
2-عمومیرابطه فرد با دوست و دولت نماینده عموم (مالیت –جزایی-کیفری)
2-بین الملل
1-خصوصی¬روابط افراد با فرد دیگر در کشور (ازدواج ایرانی با فرانسوی)
2-عمومی¬روابط دولت و مقررات آنها
روابط خصوصی منظور حقوق مدنی اشخاص است حقوقی است که شخص در اجتماع در مقابل سایر اشخاص دارد(ارث-معاملات-به دنیا آوردن فرزند-ازدواج)
بر اینکه موضوع مشمول ح ب خ باشد»:
1-جنبه بین المللی داشته باشد ¬ به کشور دیگر هم مربوط شود-فرامرزی(در ح خ عامل خارجی دخالت دارد .مسئله ما را به کشور دیگر ربط می دهد (مثلاً تابطعیت ازدواج)
2-موضوع از مسائل حقوقی خصوصی می باشد.
مسائل حقوق عمومی مربوط به نظم عمومی هر کشور است.
معنای حقوق:
1-شخص در اجتماع در مقابل دیگران دارد باید به این توانایی احترام بگذارند .مانند:حق مالکیت (برای خرید یک کتاب حق مالکیت داریم)
2-مجموع قواعد و مقررات(قوانین)
3-پولی که کارمندان دولت در یافت می کنند.
مثال:
دوایراتنی در آلمان قرارداد می بندند جنبه بین المللی دارد چون محل انعقاد قرارداد آلمان است اگر دو ایرانی در آلمان ازدواج کنند بین المللی دارد.اگر دو نفر فرش خرید و فروش را در ترکیه تحویل بگیرند جنبه بین المللی دارد.
اگر یم ایرانی خارجی راسیلی بزند جنبه بین المللی ندارد.
وجه اشتراک و اختلاف ح ب خ و ح ب ع
1-هر دو تعلق به جامعه بین الملل دارد ¬اشتراک
تفاوت
1-از حیث اشخاص دارنده حقوق منظور اینست که چه کسانی می توانند از ب خ استفاده کنند چه کسانی از ح ب عمومی.بین الملل عمومی که مجموعه قواعد و مقررات حاکم بر چه کسانی استدر پاره ای از موارد دولت ها مشمول ح ب خ می شوند یعنی گاهی به دولت باید مانند اشخاص نگاه کرد.(خصوصی:فرد با فرد-عمومی:فرد با دولت)
وظایف دولت
1-عمل حاکمیت:برای اداره دولت لازم و به جز دولت کسی نمی تواند آن را انجام دهد(امنیت ،آرامش،آموزش عمومی)
عمل تصدی:کارهایی مانند اشخاص می دهد:مانند اصل ع ع
اگر یک آلمانی در ایران کلاهبرداری می کند طبق قانون ایران رسیدگی می کنند.
2-از حیث مرجع صالح برای رسیدگی .(اختلافات بین المللی از طریق دیپلماتیک حل می شوداگر حل نشد توافق می کنند که حقوق عمومی در دیوان دادگستری بین المللی حل شود ولی مرجع صالح برای رسیدگی به مسایل حقوق بین المللی خصوصی دادگاه عمومیهر کشور است.)
اگر یک ایرانی در آلمان با یک آلمانی قرارداد ببندد  و اختلاف بین آنها باشد ایرانی می تواند هم در دادگاه ایران و آلمان اقامه دعوی کند.
3-از حیث وحدت یا کثرت منظور اینست ذکه ح ب عمومی چون نسبت به تمام دولت ها اجرا می شود و درجه شمول آن نسبت به همه کشورهاست لذا پس از یک حقوق بین الملل وجود ندارد.اشتراک هر دو متعلق به جامعه بین الملل دارد.
اختصاصی:در برخی دولت ها مشمول ح-خ هستند یعنی به دولت مثل اشخاص باید نگاه کرد .
1-حاکمیت
2-تصدی:اصل44
مرجع صالح رسیدگی:ح-ع دیوان دادگستری بین المللپ
ح-خ دادگاه عمومی
نی بوایه:این رشته از حقوق بین المللی نیست بلکه داخلی است زیرا برخی منابع آن داخلی است و هر جامعه ای موافق مسائل خود قوانین مربوط به آن را وضع می کند از طرفی روش مطالعه آن مطابق روش حقوقی داخلی بوده حقوق  بین الملل عمومی یکی است و شامل همه کشورها می ود ولی خصوصی در کشوری جداگانه است.
جلسه دوم:
ایرادات:
جنبهخ بین المللی ندارد چون منابعش داخلی است .ایرادات وارده بر حقوق بین الملل خصوصی صفحه 3 می گوینذد هر چند قواعد و مقررات در داخل ایجاد می شود ولی هر شکور در هناگم وضع قواعد به مقررات کشور دیر توجه دارد .علت بین المللی بودن این رشته اینست که موضوعات مطرح در این رشته به کشورهای دیگر هم مربوط می شودموضوعاتی که در ح خ مطرح می شود به دلیل دخالت خارجی به بیرون مربوط می شود .علت بین المللی بودن:موضوعات مطرح شده مربوط به یک کشور نیست.از صحبت خصوصی بوال حقوقدانان ایراد دارند :
1-این رشته از حقوق خصوصی نیست چون امروزه حقوق خصوصی معنا نداردو معتقدند کشورها هنگام وضع قاعده منافع کشور را مدنظر قرار می دهند نه منافع خصوصی افراد را.
پس این رشته جنبه خصوص ندارد.این ایرادات قابل توجه نیستند چون انکار حقوق خصوصی درست نیست چون در برخی مسایل افراد باید وجود داشته باشند.
در همه قانونمداری ها دولت بیشتر منافع افراد را در نظر می گیرد.
کسانیکه ایراد می گیرند تاکنون یک اسم خاصی برای اسن پیدا نکرده اند .
تاریخچه حقوق بین الملل خصوصی:
در عهد باستان برای اشخاص بیگانه شخصیت حقوقی قائل نبودند بیگانه نه حق و تکلیفی داشت ح ب خ نتیجه روابط بین المللی است .فقطدر برخی موارد که عهدنامه ها بین دولت ها وجود داشت و در آن عهدنامه اجازه داده می شد یک فرد به کشور دیگر برود و دیگری از طریق طمیهمان نوازی بود.اما این جنبه فردی داشت و دیگر مورد حمایت آن حمعه نبود.
رم =دشمن
در دوره حقوق رم بیگانه را دشمن تلقی می کردند به عنوان برده می گرفتند هیچ حقی یبرای بیگانه قایل نبود تنها از طریق عهدنامه این امکان وجود داشت.
بعداً که روم سرزمین های دیگر را گرفت مرزها برداشته شد رومی با غیر رومی آمیخته شد در آنجا 2 نوع قاعده اعمال می شد یک قاعده برای رومی ها و یک قاعده برای غیر رومی ها .یعنی بر اساس اصل و نسب قانون ایجاد می کردند.یکی را حقوق داخلی می گویندو دیگری را حقوق خارجه .وقتی کشور روم کشورهای همسایه را گرفت و با هم شدند بحث رومی و غیررومی نبود.
در ابتدای قرن 13 ایتالیا به شکل فدرال اداره می شدهر کدام از ایالات قانون خاص خود را داشتند و از اینجاست که شکل تعارض قوانین در آن ظهور پیدا می کند.
وقتی یک فردی از یک ایالت با یک ایالت دیگر معامله می کرداشکال ایجاد می شد که قانون کدام کشور حاکم باشد  مانند کشور آمریکا (قانون متحد الشکلی را وضع کرد ولی قانون مدنی شان متفاوت است)این قضیه شدت ÷یدا کرد ولی ایتالیایی ها با کشورهای دیگر ارتباط برقرار کردند مثلاً وقتی که ایتالیایی با اسپانیایی معامله می کردسؤال بود که قانون کجا باید اجرا شود.تا اینکه کم کم حقوقدانان به فکر راه حل افتادند .زیرا عملاً از طریق عرض یکه قواعد به وجود آمد که متفاوت از ح داخلی بود این قواعد زمانی اجرا می شد که ایتالیایی با خارجی معامله می کرد و جنبه بین المللی داشته باشد.پس بنابراین یک سلسله قوانین و مقررات در ایتالیا بوجود می آید و زمانی کاربرد دارد که جنبه بین المللی داشته باشد .
از جمله(ومولن)امروزه در هر کشوری یک سری قواعدی است که روابط اشخاص را بیان می کند.
قلمرو حقوق بین الملل خصوصی:
موضوعات ج خ
شمول حقوق بین الملل خصوصی چه چیزهایی است؟موضوعش چیست؟از قرن 13 تا 19 تنها موضوع در ح خصوصی تعارض قوانین بود برای اینکه یک سلسله مقررات در ایتالیا به وجود آمد که می خواست آن را رفع کند.قاننونی وضع شد که اگر قرار داد در ه کجا بسته شود قانون آن کشور حاکم استو همه هم پذیرفتند..ولی از 19 به بعد نظریات جدید مطرح شد که آیا تعرض قوانین تنها موضع ح ب خ است یا موضوعات دیگر وجود دارد؟
1-تعارض قوانین
2-تعارض قوانین تعارض دادگاه
3-تعارض قوانین-تعارض دادگاه-وضع حقوقی بیگانه
4-تعارض قوانین-تعارض دادگاه-وضع حقوقی-تابعیت
5- تعارض قوانین-تعارض دادگاه-وضع حقوقی-تابعیت-اقامت گاه
در اینجا چند عقیده مطرح می شود:
1-هنوز هم در آلمان و آمزریکا طرفدار دارد اینست که ح ب خ منحصر به تعارض قوانین است تنها موضوع در ح ب خ تعارض قوانین است زیرا باعث تعارض نسبت به سایر عب ها استقلال دارد.اولین استقلالش از جهت منبع است منبعش تازه قوانین است رویه قضائی یعنی آرا دادگاه ها تازه است.رویه قضائی ابتدا از طریق عرف به وجود آمد و بعد  در داگاه فرانسه مورد استناد قرار گرفتبعد رای صادر کردند بعد به رسمیت شناختند (تعارض قوانین آرا دادگاه ها ناشی شده )ولی منبع سایر قوانین است که در مجلس به تصوویب می رسدو همینطور موضوعاتی در تعارض قوانین مطرح می شود که در جای دیگر بحث نمی شود مثلاً صحبت از قواعد حل تعارض –صحبت از توصیف-احاله-تعارض متحرک که به غیر از تعارض قوانین در هیچ حا مطرح نمی شوداین نویسنده اسم کتاب ح ب خ را تعارض قوانین می گذارند.
2-درکنار تعارض قوانین باید از تعارض دادگاهها هم بحث کرد زیرا شباهت های بین این دو وجود دارد (در تعارض قوانین می خواهیم بدانیم کدام قانون را اجرا کینم)در تعارض دادگاه (کدام داگاه صلاحیت رسیدگی دارد).
در هر دو هدف حل تعارض است به خاطر مشابهت و تاثیری که بر هم دارند به ویژه تاثیری که حل تعارض قوانین بر حل تعارض دادگاه دارند می گویند باید از هر دو بحث کرد که این نظر در فرانسه با تن و پیه مطرح شد ولی امروز در انگلوساکسون (طرفدار نظام حقوقی انگلیسی )هستند.
 3-در اسپانیا-آمریکا-ایتالیا ح ب خ را شامل تعارض قوانین –تعارض دادگاهو وضع حقوقی بیگانگان می دانندیعنی تشخیص اینکه یک بیگانه در داخل کشورچه حقوقی دارد.وضع حقوقی بیگانه  مقدم تعارض قوانین است مثلاً بیگانه می تواند در ایران ازدواج کند.
3-علاوه بر سه تا شامل تابعیت هم می شود.در فرانسه بیشتر مطرح هست.
حقوقدانان علت این نظر را این می دانند که تابعیت کاملاًذر ارتباط باعث تعارض قوانین است معتقدند تابعیت مبنای همه آن بحث هاست(3 بحث) زیرا قبل از وضع حقوقی بیگانه باید بحث تابعیت مطرح شود.به چه کسی بیگانه و به چه کسی تابعه می گوییم.
5-حل تعارض قوانین در زمینه احوال شخصیهبه تابعیت بستگی دارد اگر در زمینه احوال شخصیه تعارض قوانین به وجود بیاید حل آن منوط به تابعیت است.از جمله در ایران و فرانسه مثلاً زن و مرد آلمانی در ایران طلاق می گیرند طلاق آنها تابع تعارض قوانین است.حل تعارض ایران در این زمینه اینست که حل تعارض شخصیه (نسب-ارث)تابع قانون کشور متبوعه است.
قانونگذار قانون کشوری را که شخص  تبعه آن است اجرا می کند بحث قانون آلمان مطرح می شود.[مثلاً یک مکزیکی در ایران معامله می کند کافی است که شخص 18 سال داشته باشد در امور مالی باید به سن رشد بگیرند.دختر 9 ساله پسر 13 یا 15 سال ولی در امور مالی تحت ولایت است می تواند از دادگاه حکم رشد بگیرد .اگر از کادرش ارث رسیده خود می تواند امضاء کند .پسر در 18 سالگی حکم رشد دارد.قانونگذار می گوید باید 18 سال داشته باشد ولی مکزیکی ها می گویند 24 سال داشته باشد .قانون مکزیک مطرح می شود.
راه حلش مبتنی بر تابعیت شخص است.
در انگلیس و ایران مطرح می شود که در کنار 4 موضوع از اقامت گاه هم بحث می کند.در انگلیس تعارض قوانین راجع به اشخاص حالیه را بر اساس اقامت گاه مطرح می کنند.[در ایران حقوق ب خ شامل تعارض قوانین –دادگاه-وضع حقوقی تابعیت اقامت گاه می شود.]
علت اینکه 4 تا را در ح ب خ مطالعه می کند چوان در ارتباط کامل با تعارض قوانین ایت که تعارض قوانین تنها موضوع ح ب خ را تشکیل می دهد.
موضوع اصلی ح ب خ تعارض قوانین است که روابط خصوصی افراد را در جامعه بین الملل مطرح می کند.
جلسه سوم:
منابه حقوق بین الملل خصوصی
یعنی مقررات از کجا ناشی می شود ح ب خ هم منبع داخلی دارد هم بین المللی .یعنی پاره ای مقررات در داخل حاصل می شود و برخی در سطح بین الملل کدامیک مهم اند؟آیا داخلی اهمیت دارد یا قواعدی که در سطح بین الملل است؟
پاسخ به این سؤال بستگی به این دارد که طرفدار ملی حطقوق بین الملل خصوصی باشیم یا طرفدار جهانی حقوق بین الملل.اگر معتقد به این باشیم که هر کشوری مستقل است و لذا هر کشوری باید  برای خود مقررات بین الملل خصوصی داشته باشد.ح ب خ مربوط به خود کی کشور استیعنی به تعداد کشورها حقوق بین الملل خصوصی دارد در اینصورت منابع داخلی مهم اند پس اگر  ما طرفدار ملی ح ب خ باشیم در اینجا منابع داخلی مهم اند ولی اگر ما طرفدار نظریه جهانی ح ب خ باشیم یعین اینکه همه کشورها یک دنیای واحد را تشکیل می دهد این نظریه مبتنی بر دهکده جهانی است هیچ کشوری نمی تواند جدا از کشور دیگر باشد .اگر چنین فکر کنیم که باید برای هر کشور یک ح ب خ وجود داشته باشد در واقع یک نظم وجود دارد مقررات بین الملی در اینجا مهم است.امروزه وجود هر دو (داخلی و بین الملل)لازم است.تفاوت فرهنگ مانع از اینست که حقوق مشترکی وجود داشته باشد یعنی قوانین داخلی مهم اند از طرفی امروزه شاهد  حرکت به جهانی شدن هسسیستم.امروزه دولت ها با عهدنامه قوانین مشترکی را بین خود امضا می کنند.(در تجارت اصل سرعت حکم می کند.)
در ح ب خ هر دو مهم هستند.
منابع ح ب خ :
1-منابع داخلی:قانون،رویه قضائی،عرف،دکترین
2-بین الملل،معاصر
اولین منبع ح ب خ داخلی قانون است و آن قانون مقرراتی است که با رعایت تشریفات خاص در مرجع قانونگذاری یک کشور به تصویب می رسد.در هر کشوری مقرراتی در زمینه بین الملل خصوصی در مرجع قانونگذاری به تصویب می رسد.گرچه قانونگذارباید یک سلسله قواعدی را وضع کرد.(قانون مدنی،قانون کار،قانون تجارت و...)
ولی در زمینه بین الملل خصوصی بین الملل در لا به لای قانون آورده .
یک آلمانی با یک ایرانی قراردادی در ترکیه منعقد می کنند در ایران ایرانی می بیند که کالا معیوب است بحث تعارض دادگاه است،قانون ترکیه اجرا می شود.ازدواج دو فرانسوی در ایران تابع حقوق فرانسه است.
رویه قضایی:آرائ صادره از دادگاهها
در معنی اعم کلمه یعنی آرائ صادره از دادگاهها ولی در حقوق ما وقتی از رویه قضایی بعنوان منبع حقوق صحبت می کنیم منظور رای این است که از حقوق دیوان عمومی کشور به منظور وحدت رویه صادر می شود و این در حکم قانون است و به معنی احض کلمه در کشور ما آن رای که از هیئت عمومی دیوان عالی کشور برای وحدت رویه صادر می شود و دادگاهها باید از آن پیروی کنند.
وقتی دادگاهها از این قانون تفسیر خاصی دارند .(در یک ماده قاضی تبریز و تهرانی هر کدام؟ خاصی داشته یک قانون ولی تغییر های متفاوت شده یعنی دو نفر در یک وضع مشابه قرار دارند قاضبی شعبه قانون هر کدام حکم متفاوتی دارند.در این صورت به پیشنهاد دادستان به هیئت عمومی می رود یعنی رؤسای تمام شعب و بالاخره نظر یکی و باکمی اصلاح تایید می کنند .این رای که از دیوانعالی کشور صادر  می شود رویه قضائی است.صرفاً رایی است که از هیئت عمومی کشور صادر می شود.در ایران رویه قضایی در زمینه ح ب خ با حضور  از روسای تمام شعب.
قرارداد تابع محل انعقاد عقد اینکه ابتدا عرف بود بعد ایرانی ها تبدیل به قانون کردند.
ضعیف است چون در گذشته ح ب خ زیاد توسعه نیافته بود.در عمل اشخاص باید  از تعداد اندک هم پیروی کنند(ولی در سایر کشورها مانند فرانسه رویه قضاظئی مهم تر است.)قانن کمتر تصویب شده قانون مفصل در مورد تابعیت است.روابط را در سطح بین المللی ر ویه قضائی مشخص می کند.)
عرف:
آن قاعده ای است که در نتیجه عادت در بین مردم بوجود می آید یعنی مردم یک سرزمین سالیان متمادی در خصوص یک موضوع به یک نحو عمل می کنندو این نحوه عمل در آنها به صورت عادت در می آید و بعد که مردم به انجام به این شیوه عادت کردند وجدان عمومی جامعه عمل آن شیوه را مذموم تلقی می مند یعنی وجدان عمومی؟از آن را زشت می  دانند در اینجا در نتیجه عادت عرف به وجود می آید.
در ایران عرفی رد زمینه ح ب خ وجود ندارد. برای به وجود آمدن عرف صدها سال لازم است در حالیکه ح ب خ در ایران 50 سال قبل شکل گرفته ولی در بسیاری از کشورها قواعد ح ب خ بصورت عرف باقی مانده .در ایتالیا اول بار عرف شکل گرفته(13 تنا 19 و تا حالا برخی از این قواعد بای مانده یا تغییر  پیدا کرده) وقتی عرف ها جریان پیدا کردند و به قرن 20 رسید دادگاه ها که به این عرف استناد کردند عرف ها تبدیل به رویه قضایی شد برخی کشورها این عرف ها را تبدیل به قانون کردند از جمله ایران.(امروزه بسیاری از قوانین انگلیس نوشته است ولی مسایل مدنی شان ننوشته است که ابتدا به صورت عرف بوده بعد تبدیل به رویه قضایی شده).
در کشور ما قاعده عرفی وجود ندارد.
دگترین:
در علم حقوق یعنی نظریه علمای حقوق:دکترین یعنی نظریع علما در فلسفه ،دکترین یعنی نظریاتی که در علم حقوق ،حقوقدانان می دانند اما دکترین منبع غیر مستقیم است .مثلاً قاضی هنگام صدور رای نمی تواند بگوید مثلاًنظر کاتو زیانم اینست من هم همین را می گویم .ولی قاضی که به قانون استناد می کند قانون را تغییر می کند،خود قضاوت از این می توان برخوردار نیستند.
بنابراین قانون را آنطور که مثلاً کاتو زیان تغییر کرده آن را به نام خود تفسیر می کند .بنابراین نظریه علما بصورت غیر مستقیم است.
جلسه چهارم:
منابه حقوق بین الملل خصوصی:
1-داخلی:قانون-عرف-رویه-دکترین
2-بین الملل:عهدنامه بین المللی-رویه قضائی-عرف بین المللی-اصول کلی بین الملل
عهدنامه یک قراردادی است سیاسی-اجتماعی-اقتصادی فرهنگی که بین دو یا چند دولت بسته می شود.عهدنامه در ح ب خ دارای آن درجه که در ب ح ع است نیت مهم ترین منابع ح ب ع را عهدنامه تشکیل می دهند کشورها برای تنظیم روابط خود قراردادهایی را منعقد می کنند و این قرار داد بنیان ح ب ع را تشکیل می دهد .ولی در حب خ عهدنامه این درجه اهمیت را ندارد.تعداد عهدنامه ح ب خ کم است عهدنامه به عنوان منبه ح ب خ منظورمان همهم عهدنامه های موجود نیست.موضوعات ح ب خ (تابعیت-حل تعارض-وضع حقوقی و ....)
مقررات ح ب خ ممکن به شکل عهدنامه دربیاید ولی عهدنامه در ح ب خ زیاد توسعه پیدا نکرده.
چه عواملی باعث شده عهدنامه در ح ب خ توسعه نیابد؟
1-چون دولت ها مستقیم در این مسائل ذینفع نیستند لذا علاقه ای به انعقاد عهدنامه از خود نشان نمی دهند در مسائل ح ب ع کاملاً ذینفع هستند ولی در ح ب خ مربوط به اشخاص است.
2-چون انعقا عهدنامه مستلزم گذشن از سوی طرفین است دولت ها دوست ندارند در زمینه مسائل خصوصی اشخاص تن به گذشت بدهند.
3-عهدنامه بعد از اینکه منعقد شد در داخل مشکل تصویب پیدا می کند عهدنامه در مسایل ح ب خ جنبه حیاتی ندارد .چون عهدنامه بعد از انعقاد  مشکل تصویب دارد ،دولت ها علاقه ای به آن نشان نمی دهند.
4-برذخی از عهدنامه هایی که در زمینه مسایل ح ب خ منعقد می شوند مکشکل مفادی دارنددر درون خود عهدنامه ها مشکل وجود دارد .مثلاً عهدنامه ها بین چند کشور منعقد شده است و ایران که می خواهد به آن بپیوندد لذا چون مفاد عهدنامه با فرهنگ ما سازگار نیست به تصویب نمی رسد .مسایل ح ب خ بر اساس اعتقادات آنها شکل گرفته همه آنها ریشه در فرهنگ دارد.
عهدنامه ها راجع به موضوعات ح ب خ هستند.
تابعیت:کشورها کمتر به مسئله تابعیت تن می دهند اثر هم باشد به منظورو جلوگیری از بدون تابعیتی یا تابعیت مضاعف است.مثلاً ایران و آلمان عهدنامه می بندد .اگر یک فردی تابعیت آلمان باشد با توجه به شرایط شخصی که تابعیت کجاست تابعیت مضاعف وی رابیان می کند.
وضع حقوقی بیگانگان:هدف اینست که می خواهند بیگانه در داخل کشور همانند اتباع حقوقی داشته باشند .مثلاً ایران و بلژیک عهدنامه می بندند ایرانیان همان حقوق بلژیک را داشته باشد.
تعارض دادگاه:کشورها اجازه نمی دهند کشورهای دیگر دز زمینه صلاحیت دادگاه دخالت کند ولی در زمینه اجرای حکم همکاری می کنند بیشتر در زمینه اجرای احکام استکه مثلاً حکمی که در ایران صادر شد در آلمان هم اجرا شودمثلاًطلاق زن و مرد ایرانی در آلمان که ارث شوهر در ایران است حکم آبلمان در ایران قابل اجرا نیست مگر اینکه دو دوست توافق کرده باشند و از ایران دستور اجرا بگیرندو اموال شوهر را توقیف کنند.
تعارض قوانین:هدف ایجاد؟ حقوق است سعی می کند کشورها با انعقاد قرارداد قوانین متحدالشکلی ایجاد کنند.مثلاً کشورهاوجمع می شوندراجع به حمل و نقل بین المللی بحث می کنند و کشورهای امضا کننده فقط از آن قاتنون استفاد ه می کنند.
عهدنامه:
بین امضا کنندگان لازم الاجر است است اصل نبی بودن عندنامه های دو جانبه بسته هستند امکان ورود کشور دیگر نیست ولی برعکس عهدنامه چند جانبه.
جلسه پنجم:
رویه قضائی بین الملل:
آرائی است که از مراجع بین المللی از جمله دیوان داگستری و از دیوان های بین المللی صادر می شود.وقتی در مورد راجع به حقوق  ب خ آرایی صادر می شود این مراجع مکرراً مورد استناد قرار می گیرد و محاکم داخلی در مورد لزوم  از این آرا استفاده می کنند.مثلاً قبل از ج ج دوم در دیوان دادگستری بین المللی راجع به یک شخصی دعوایی مطرح شد چند کشور از او حمایت سیاسی کردند .دیوان داگستری بین المللی مشاهده کرد چندین کشور حمایت سیاسب کردند (این دولت ها دعوایشان را در دیوان داگستری مطرح می کنند .افراد نمی توانند دعوایشان را در دیوان دادگستری مطرح می کنند مگر اینکه چند کشور از او حماین سیاسی کنند.)
دولت ها زمانی دست به این کار می زنند که با هم توافق کنند اشخاص حق مراجعه به دیوان داگستطری را ندارد.
قبل از ج ج دوم دیوان رای دادگستری بین المللی را داشسیستم که با ج ج دوم تعطیل شد و دیوان داگستری بین المللی بوجود آمد.
قبل از ج ج دوم راجع به یک شخصی چندین کشور از یک شخص حمایت سیاسی کردند دیوان گفت این شخص تبعه کدام کشور است در موردی؟ که یکی از موضوعات ح ب خ است چنین نظر دارد و گفت هیچ کشوری نمی تواند از فردی حمایت سیاس کند مگر رابطه این شخص با کشور رابطه موثر باشد.کشوری می تواند حمایت کند که تابعیت موثر و غالب باشد و فقط آن کشور از او حمایت سیاسی می کند.این رای بعداً در مراجع دیگر مورد استناد قرار  گرفت و همین راه حل تکرار شد و در سال 1361 مجدداً این راه حل برای دعوای ایران و آمریکا مورد استفاده قرار گرفت.منظور از رابطه موثر شخصی از کدام تابعیت بیشتر استفاده می کند.اینکه در کجا ازدواج کرده و به چه زبانی صحبت می کنداز روی این قراین رابطه وی را با کشور مشخص می کنند.
دیوان دادگستری قبل از ج ج دوم صادر کرد و. در مورد ایران و آمریکا مطرح شد[بعد از انقلاب به وساطت /بخوایر بین ایران و الجزایر امضا شد و اختلافات ایران و آمریکا از ظریق داوری حل شد .3داور از ایران و 3 داور از آمریکا و 3 داور از کشورهای بی طرف و 9 داور به 3 شعبه تقسیم می شوند.به دعوایی ایرانیان علیه آمریکا و آمریکا علیه ایرانیان رسیدگی کنند.بعد از انقلاب دولت ایران اموال کسانی که از ایران رفته بودند مصادره کرد اینها از این موقعیت استفاده کردند و در دیوان داوری ایران و آمریکا علیه ایران طرح دعوی کردند به این دلیل که ما آمریکایی هسسیستم برای اموال شکایت کردند دولت ایران گفت اینها ایرانی هستند و طبق عدم مسئولیت دولت هیچ دولتی در مقابل نتیجه خود مسئولیتی ندارد و بعلاوه اساساً دیوان صلاحیت لازم را ندارد.اینها دارای تابعیت مضاعف بودند.در اینجا این واقعیت این بود این اشخاص تابعیت مضاعف بودند و هم تابعیت ایران و آمریکا بودند .در اینجا دیوان داگستری در پرونده نظر دارد دیوان هنگامی صلاحیت رسیدگی خواهد کرد که تابعیت غالب و موثر آن تابعیت آمریکا باشد این یک رایی بود که قبل از ج ج در دیوان داگستری مطرح شده بود.الآن یک رویه قضایی بین المللی است.اگر یم قاضی مشکل تابعیت روبرو شد می تواند از رویه قضائی بین الملل حکم صادر کند]
(بعد از ج ج دوم که دیوان داگستری بین المللی تأسیس شد در این زمان(بهشان بعد از ج ج دوم بعنوان کشور شناخته شد)وقتی دولت ؟لهستانمی شود اقدام به ملی سازی می کند درواقع عملیات ملی کردن نه مصادره دولت لهستان سرمایه های خارجی را که در لهستان بود ملی بود مانند کارخانه ها بنام آمریکایی می کند ،دولت آلمان با لهستان وارد اختلاف می شود مشکل حل نمی شوند،دولت آلمان از اتباع خود حمایت سیاسی می کند و اختلاف را به دیواندادگستری بین المللی می دهد و آن می گوید هیچ دولتی حق ندارد سرمایه خارجی در داخل ملی کند با پرداخت قیمت عادله و ملی کردن برای آن دولت کشور ضرورت داشته باشد .اما بعداً در همین رأی در دعاوی دیگر کطرح شد و در نزد مراجعین بین المللی رویه شد.)
عرف بین المللی:
منظور از عرف بین المللی آن قاعده حقوقی است که دولت ها طی مدت مدیدی در روابط خود آن را رعایت کردند به طوری که وجدان عمومی آنها آن را الزام ؟ شناخته است ممکن است کشورها در سالهای متمادی به طور مستمر در زمینه بین الملل خصوصی به یک شیوه رفتار کرده باشند و انجام آن عمل تکرار شده و این عادت غیر قابل نقض است می گویند عرف به وجود آمده (عرف داخلی :عرف آن قاعده ای است که از عادت ناشی می شود وجدان عمومی شان بعنوان قاعده عمومی می شناسند.)
عرف در حقوق بین الملل عمومی نقش بسیار مهمی دارد .بسیاری از منابع  ح ب عمومی مجاهده یا عرفطی است.(الآن کشورها باید اجازه بدهند به هنگام جنگ مأموران سیاسی آن کشور را ترک کنند.)(در آب های سرزمینی یکدیکر به عملیات پلیسی دست نزنید.)ولی در  ح ب خ تعداد عرف بینالمللی کم است مثلاً آیین دادرسی تابع مقر  دادگاه است –اموال تابع محل وقوع مال است.
اسناد تابع تنظیم سند است –هر کشور باید حقوقی برای اتباع به بیگانه بشناسد که بسیاری از اینها تبدیل به قانون شده.
تابعیت 
عبارت است از رابطه معنوی و سیاسی که فردی را به دولت معینی مرتبط می کند رابطه به معنی وسیله ارتباط رابطه فرد و دولت تابعیت معنوی دارد بعلاوه این رابطه جنبه سیاسی دارد .منظور اینست که برقراری این ارتباط در اختیار مطلق دولت است ارادهد فرد در برقراری این ارتباط مؤثر نظیست یعنی هر دولتی تشخیص می د هد چه کسی تبعه اوست و چه شرایطی لازم است .در هر جای دنیا هر کسی در ایران متولد شد تابعیت ایران است.
هر کشوری شرایط خود را برای تابعیت بیان می  کند مثلاً در ایران :فرار از خدمت بنا شد،امکانات مالی داشته باشد –سن 18 سال تمام داشته باشد.
تابعیت وسیله ای است که فرد را به دولت معینی بیان می کند.
اصول و مبانی تابعیت:
1-اصل لزوم تابعیت:بدین معنی که داشتن یک تابعیتن برای هر فرد ضروری است.
2-اصل وحدت تابعیت:تابعیت باید  واحد باشد نه متعدد.
3-اصل تغییر پذیری تابعیت:تابعیت یک امر همیشگی نیست و امکان تغییر در آن وجود دارد.
عواملی که موجب بی تابعیتی می شود:
1-هر کس باید دارای تابعیت باشد (در مرد آپاتریدها(بی تابعیتی)قانون کشورها اجرا می شود مثلاً در مورد اموال شخصیه (ازدواج-طلاق-اهلیت)تابع کشور متبوع خود است در کشور ما قانون مقر دادگاه ایران را اجرا می کنیم.ولی در کشور فرانسه قانون مقر اقامتگاه اجرا می شود.
در مورد رجوع به دادگاه هر شهصی می تواند به دادگاه مراجعه کند و تابعیت شرط نیست و هر شخصی اگر در  هر جامعه مورد ظلم و تجاوز قرار  گرفت باید به داگاه مراجعه کند.
2-اعمال مجازات:در برخی کشورها مجازات برخی جرایم سلب تابعیت است ولی در ایران اینطوری نیست .طبق اصل 42 تابعیت ایرانی حق مسلم است مثل در خواست خود فرد و یا به تابعیت کشور دیگر در آید سلب تابعین به عنوان مجاز است.فقط هنگامی پذیرفته است که تابعیت از نوع تابعیت اکتسابی بوده و زمانی پس از تولد به علتی برای شخص حاصل شده باشد.
مثلاًدر آمریکا فراری از خد مت نظام در زمان جتگ جاسوسی علیه دولت آمریکا
3-وجود قانون خاص:ممکن است در یک کشوری قانونی باشد به اینصورت که در صورت مهارجت تبعه و ترک وطن شدن او تابعیت اولیه او از بین برودو اگر چنین شخصی نتواند از کشورهای دیگر تابعیت بگیرد شخصی بی تابعیت می شود.
فرقش با اولی اینست که در اول تصمیم میگیرد  که از او سلب تابعیت بکند یا نکند ولی در اینجا قانونی طراحی شده که شخص به محض سلب مالکیت ضایع می شود.
4-اختیار دادن شخص به این معنی که ممکن است در یک کشوری شخص مخیر به انتظار دو تابعیت باشد یعنی قانونگذاری یک کشوری به شخص اختیار می دهد از میان دو تابعیت یکی را انتخاب کند ولی هیچ کدام را انتخای نمی کند در این صورت بدون تابعیت است.
5-تعارض قوانین:اختلاف قوانین کشورهای مختلف
نتایج این اصل ها: راه حل ها به دو صورت است:
1-خاک:اصلی یا مبدأپ
2-خوان:اصل و نسب
1-هر کسی باید داری تابطعیت باشد شخص باید از زمان تولد دارای تبعیت  باشد.
2-شخص نمی تواند تابعیت خود را از دست بدهد مادادمک که تابعیت جدیدی بدست آورد.
خون:سیستمم است که تابعیت از روی تابعیت پدر و مادر تعیین می شود یعنی از روی نسب تعیین می شود (نسبی-خویشاوندی)در ایران سیستم خون از طرف پدر است.
خاک:تابعیت اصلی یا مبدأ است چوان در مقابل تابعیت مبدأ تابعیت اکتسابی داریم .مثلاًیک زن ایرانی با آلمانی ازدواج می کند.
سیستم خون ملازمه ای با نژاد ندارد نژاد مبتنی بر زیست شناسی :1زرد
2:سفید    3-سرخ
سیستم خون مبتنی بر نیت احتمالی غالب افراد جامعه است وقتی می خوایتند که چه وطری تحمیل کنند بچه ها می  خواهند تابعیت پدر یا مادر را داشته باشند.لذا چون فرد خواستار نیت غالب فرد است یعنی فرد خواستار زندگی در خانواده است.
در برخی موارد سیستم خون کارایی لازم را ندارد .مانند طفل سر راهی سیستم بی تابعیت است چون پدر و مادر ندارد .بچه ای که زن و مرد آپاتریت به دنیا بیاید چون پدر و مادر هر چند معلوم ولی دارای تابعیت نیستند.
2 شرط لازم است:
1-پدر و مادر معلوم باشد.
2-دارای تابعیت باشد.
نیاز به سیستمی داریم که سیستم خون را تکمیل کند که شخص بدون تابعیتی یافت نشود این سیستن سیستم خاک است.
سیستم خاک:سیستمی است که تابعیت را از روی محل تولد تعیین می کند مطابق این شخصیت تابعیت سیستمی را خواهد داشت که در آن کشور به دنیا آمده این تابعیت،تابعیت عرضی است یعنی از همان زمان تولد شخص تابعیتی را قبول می کند .کشور مهاجر؟ چون وجود تبعه در زمان صلح موجب قدرت اقتصادی و در زمان جنگ موجب قدرت نظامی است لذا کشوری نمی خواهد تبعه خود را از دست بدهد.
*در فرانسه و ایران سیستم خون اصل است.
*در آمریکا و ایران سیستم خاک اصل است.
[هر گاه از زن و مرد ایرانی برچه در ایران به دنیا بیاید ایرانی است ولی قانون آمریکا اگر در آمریکا متولد شود آمریکایی است.]
در سیستم خون تابعیت از روی پدر و مادر است.
زن و مرد چینی تابعیت ایران را کسب کرده اند بچه ای که به دنیا می آید تابعین ایرانی است.
هر کس باید تابعیتی داشته باشد همانگونه که بدون تابعیتی در سطح بین المللی برای شخص مشکل ایجاد می کند.داشتن بیش از یک تابعیت برای فرد مشکل ایجاد می کند تابعیت؟ حقوق وتکالیف است بنابراین از یک طرف داشتن حقوق ناشی از تابعیت به طور مضاعف در سطح بین الملل غیر عادلانه است از طرفی شخص به درستی نمی توانند تکالیفی که از طریق تابعیت بر شخص تحمیل می شود انجام دهد.از جمله پرداخت مالیات،انجام نظام وظیفه(یک هارجی در ایران ازدواج می کند قانون اوازدواج تابع متبوع اوست تابع همان کشور است.داشتن تابعیت مضاعف مشکلاتی برای شخص دارد)معامله زمانی درست است که دارای اهلیت باشد.
از زمانی که کشورها خواستند در مورد تابعیت قوانین وضع کنند اصل وحدت تابعیت شکل گرفت.
تابعیت مضاعف:
تابعیت مضاعف ممکن است هنگام تولد به وجود بیایدیا بعد از تولد(بیش از یک تابعیت تحمیل می شود.)
1-تابعیت مضاعف:
1-تولدی:نتیجه اختلاف قوانین کشورهاست که یکی سیستم خاک و دیگری سیستم خون را بیان می کند.
2-بعد تولدی:
الف-همین تعارض قوانین کشورها باعث می شود از هنپام تحمیل تابعین فرد دارای تابعیت مضاعف باشد و مولود تعارض بین سیستم خاک و خون است.مثلاً در اثر تعارض سیستم خاک ایران و سیستم خون کشور دیگری مطرح شود.
ب-سیستم تعارض خاک ایران و سیستم خارجی:ممکن است ما در مورد کودکی سیستم خون را اجرا کنیم و زن و مرد ایرانی مقیم آمریکا طبق بند 2 ماده 702 بچه ایرانی است.
ج-سیستم خون ایرانی با خون خارجی در اثر تعارض سیستم خون با سیستم خون کشور خارجی،بچه دارای تابعیت مضاعف می شود همه کشورها در مورد سیستم خون راه حل یکسانی ندارند در ایران سیستم خون از طریق پدر است تابعیت مادر ملاک نیست.
[اگر بچه ایرانی از پدر ایرانی وزن فرانسوی متولد شود هر گاه پدر ایرانی بچه ایرانی است ولی در فرانسه بر عکس]
[هر گاه بچه ای از پدر و مادر خارجی که قبلاً یکی در ایران متولد شده باشد به شرطی بچه ایرانی است  که پدر و مادرش قبلا ًیکی در ایران متولد شده باشد.]
2-تابعیت بعد از تولدLنتیجه اختلاف قوانین اعطای تابعیت ازد واج)
تابعیت بعد از تولد نتیجه اختلاف قوانین در مورد نحوه اعطای تابعیت است چون قوانین کشورها  در مورد نحوه کسب تابعیت متفاوت است و باعث می شود شخص در عمل دارای تابعیت باشد تابعیت یک امر سیاسی است و دولت خودش تصمیم می گیرد که چه کسی نتیجه اوست و قوانین را بر اساس مصلحت خود انجام می دهد از جمله عواملی که برای شخص در بعد از تولد تابعیت مضاعف در بعد از تابعیت ایجاد می کند:
الف-ازدواج:چون قوانین کشورها  در پاسخ به این سؤال که ازدواج در تابعیت زن مؤثر است یا نه در عمل زنی که با مرد خارجی ازدواج می کند دارای تابعیت مضاعف است چون کشور نظر یکسانی در این مورد ندارد.همین اختلاف باعث تابعیت مضاعف زن می شود.مثلاً[زن فرانسوی با مرد ایرانی ازدواج می کند در اینجا طبق بند 6 قانون مدنی :هرگاه زن خارجی با مرد ایرانی ازد واج کند زن به تابعیت مضاعف در می آید ولی قانونگذار فرانسه :ازدواج زن فرانسوی همچنان تابعیت خود را حفظ می کند در اینصورت دارای تابعیت مضاعف است.
ب-زمانیکه شخصی علی رغم داشتن تابعیت یک کشوری اقدام به داشتن تابعیت کشور دیگر می کند این شخص تابع مضاعف است[شخص ایراین در آمریکا هم تابع ایرا نی هم آمریکا]
ج- وقتی کشوری خودش اتباع خود را هدایت می کند تا از کشور خاصی تابعیت بگیرند از این طرف تابعیت اولیه آنها را حفظ می کند .[قبل از ج ج دوم دولت آلمان می خواست واتباع خود را به کشور دیگر هدایت می کرد و در صلح و رسای مجبور به لغو این قرار داد شد.]
د-در اثر تغییر تابعیت والدین است کشورها در مورد اینکه تغییر تابعیت روی بچه تأثیر دارد یا نه اختلاف دارند (تعارض قوانین)[طفل صغیر در اثر تغییر تابعیت پدر ایرانی ،ایرانی می شود ولی در فرانسه تغییری روی بچه ندارد.]
 ه=تغییر تابعیت شوهر:شوهر تغییر تابعیت می دهد زن هم تغییر می دهد.[در ایران اگر مرد فرانسوی تابعیت ایران را به دست آوردهر دو ایرانی محسوب می شوند.]
راههای جلوگیری از تابعیت مضاعف:
راه حل کلی برای جلوگیری از تابعیت مضاعف وجود ندارد زیرا تابعیت امری سیاسی است و هر کشوری آنطور که صلاح می داند در زمینه تابعیت قانونگذاری می کند پس اختلاف قوانین راجه به تابعیت وجود خواهد داشت ،پس یک مرجع مافوق کشورها وجود نداردتا یک قانون تحمیلکند  تا تابعیت مضاعف پیش نیاید طبق اصل حاکمیت برابر کشور ها و استقلال کشورها هر کشوری مستقل است و قانون خاص خود را در مورد تابعیت دارد پس لاجرم قوانین کشورها در مورد تابعیت مختلف است پس راه حل کلی برای جلئوگیری از بروز تابعیت مضاعف وجود ندارد.
در مورد رفع تابعیت مضاعف دو طریقه وجود دارد:1-سیاسی 2-حقوقی
سیاسی:به موجب عهدنامه است یعنی ممکن است دو کشور در بین خود عهدنامه ای منعقد کنند و به موجب عهدنامه مشکل تابعیت مضاعف را بین خود حل می کنند .مثلاً کشور A با کشور B توافق می کند که اگر شخصی تابعیت AوB را دارد شخص در کدام مورد تابعیت A را داشته باشد و در کدام شرایط تابعیتB را داشته باشد در این زمینه تعداد عهدنامه ها کم است.
حقوقی:از طریق قانون و به طرق قانونی بخواهند تابعیت مضاعف را رفع کنند راه حل قانونی موجود در این زمینه استفاده از شیوه ترجیح است یعنی کی از دو تابعیت بر دگری ترجیح داده می شود امام ترجیح چگونه باید صورت بگیرد ؟در کنگره استکهلم در سوئد نظر اعضای مؤسسه حقوق ب م این بود که اختیار به خود تبعه داده می شود که تبعه بعد از رسیدن به سن قانونی مثلاً به سن 18 سال یکی از تابعیت را انتخاب کند ولی برخی ها انتقاد کردند و گفتند تابعیت امری سیاسی است و دادن حق انتخاب به تبعه مغایراتی با قانون دارد و درست نیست و این به مصلحت دولت بستگی دارد و برخلاف منافع ملی خواهد بود ولی باید گفت که دادن حق انتخاب به تبعه هیچ مغایرتی یا مصالح ملی نخواهد داشت  چون این موارد نادر هستند پس دادن اختیار به تبعه هیچ مشکلی را از نظر سیاسی و حقوقی ایجاد نمی کند .قانونگذار ما از این روش استفاده کرده در برخی موارد حق انتخاب را به خود شخص داده در تعارض خاک ایران با خون خارجی هر گاه طفلی از زن و مرد خارجی که یکی از آنها در ایران به دنیا آمده باشد طفل ایرانی است ولی فرانسه سیستم خون را اعمال می کند چون پدر و مادر فرانسوی است .فرزند هم فرانسوی است در ماده 977 قاعده ترجیح را اعمال می مند.قبل از تولد هرگاه یم مرد فرانسوی تابعیت ایران را کسب کند ایرانی است اما بچه هم ایرانی است اما فرانسه می گوید بچه فرانسوی است چون تابعیت پدر به فرزند انتقال نمی یابد.
جلسه هشتم:
اصل تغییر پذیری تابعیت:
تابعیت یک امر همیشگی و زوال ناپذیر نیست و ممکن است تابعیت در طول زندگی انسان تغییر پیدا کند ولی امروزه در حکومت فکری بشر این اصل حکومت می کند تغییر چپذیری تابعیت به سه شکل است:
1)تغییر ارادی تابطعیت   2)تغییر غیر ارادی تابعیت  3)تغییر تابعیت بر اثر ازد واج
توضیح 1)تغییر ارادی تابعیت:
باید گفت که تابعیت یک امر سیاسی است و بعید به نظر می رسد که اراده فرد در تغییر تابعیت مؤثر واقع شود ولی طرفداران اصل حاکمیت مطلق اراده از این نظر استفاده کرده اند که همه چیز ناشی از اراده انسان است و به آن منتهی می شود ولی باید دید این این نظر تا چه حدودی درست است .با بررسی مقررات کشورها می بینیم که امروزه پذیرش اصل حاکمیت نسبی تابعیت را در نظر می گیرد وقتی به مقررات توجه می کنیم میبینیم که اساسًاراده اشخاص در تغییر تابعیت دخیل نیست زیرا برای تحقق تغییر تابعیت دو شرط وجود دارد.
1)فرد تابعیت خود را از دست می دهد.
2)فرد  تابعیت جدیدی را به دست بیاورد.
تحقق هیچ کدام از این دو شرط در حیطه اراده انسان نیست .پس منظور از تغییر ارادی تابعیت اینست که تغییر تابعیت بنا به در خواست های شخصی است که به کشوری تقاضای ؟ تابعیت بدهد و به کشوری تقاضای کسب تابعیت بدهد.
توضیح 2)تغییر غیر ارادی تابعیت
در پاره ای موارد تغییر تابعیت غیر ارادی است یعنی بدون اینکه شخص قصذ تغییر تابعیت را داشت باشد و درخواست ارائه کند تابعیتش تغییر پیدا کند .مثلاً قسمتی از خاک کشور ضمیمه کشور دیگری شودو این مورد معمولاً در زمان جنگ اتفاق می افتد و مقرر می شودکه بومیان آن سرزمینی متعلق به حکومتی خواهند بود که مربوط به آن کنتور است.بعد از جنگ عهدنامه ای بین کشورها بسته می شود و تکلیف این افراد مشخص می شودو مدتی را تعیین می کنند که هر کس می خواهد می تواند به کشور خودش باز گرددولی باید تمام اموال خود را بگذارد و وارد کشور خودش شود .مورد دیگر در اثر تغییر تابعیت والدین است که اطفال صغیر هم ممکن است بدون اینکه اراده ای کرده باشد تغییر پیدا کند .قانونگذار ایرانی می گوید هر گاه یک پدر خارجی تابعیت ایران را به دست آورد طفل صغیر او هم ایرانی می شود. مورد دیگر در تغییر تابعیت وشوهر است قانونگذار ایران می گوید هرگاه مردی در تابعیت ایران را کسب کند همسر وی نیز ایرانی می شود.
 
تغییر تابعیت در اثر ازدواج:
در مورد اینکه آیا تغییر تابعیت بر اثر ازدواج وجود دارد یا نه سه نظریه وجود دارد که سه سیستم را مشخص می کند.
آیا در اثر ازدواج تابعیت زن نیز تغییر پیدا می کند یا نه ؟
سیستم اول یک نظریه اینست که وقتی زن ازدواج می کند تابعیت شوهر را کسب می کند که این سیستم به سیستم وحدت تابعین معروف است.
سیستم دوم:سیستم استقلال تابعیت است معتقدند ازدواج زن به تابعیت دولت تأثیر نمی گذارد تابعیت زن باقی می ماند و  به تابعیت شوهر در نمی آید.
سیستم سوم:استقلال نسبی است مطابق این نظریه ،بعد از ازدواج زن به تابعیت شوهر در نمی آید و تابعیت خود را حفظ می کند مگر اینکه کشور متبوع شوهر تابعیت مرد رابر وی تحمیل کند(این برای اینست که زن با ازدواج تابعیت خود را از دست ندهد ولی اگر کشور متبوع مردتابعیت را برد و تحمیل کرد زن آن تابعیت را بپذیرد)سؤالی که در بحث تغییر تابعیت مطرح می شود اینست که اگر شخص در اثر تقلب نسبت به قانون تابعیت خود را از است چه بحثی وجود دارد)تقلب نسبت به قانون وقتی است که شخص از یک حق قانونی و اختیار قانونی برای رسیدن به یک امر ممنوع استفاده کند هدفش تغییر تابعیت نیست اینجا چه کار باید کرد ؟(یک مورد تقلب نسبت به قانون در فرانسه اتفاق افتاد  که مربوط به  خانم دوبرفومون است در گذشته طلاق در اروپا ممنوع بود .قبل از سال 1884در فرانسه نیز طلاق ممنوع بود ولی در آلمان طلاق زودتر از فرانسه رایج شده بود دوبوفومون که فرانسوی بود می خواست از شوهرش جدا شود.ولی ب اساس قانون فرانسه این امر ممنوع بود.خانم دوبوفومون برای رسیدن به این امر ممنوع تابعیت آلمان را کسب می کند تقاضای طلاق می مند با مرد آلمانی ازدواج می کندو دوباره به فرانسه برمی  گردد.شوهر او تقاضا ی رسیدگی می کند دادگاه فرانسه اعلام می کند که کار خانم دوبوفومونتقلب نسبت به قانون است لذا هم طلاق باطل است و هم تابعیت کشور آلمان.اما تغییر تابعیت آلمانی یک امر سیاسی است و نباید در حیطه حاکمیت کشورهای دیگر دخالت کرد اما نتیجه عمل تقلبانه او باطل است.
*در زمینه تابعیت در ایران چه مباحثی وجود دارد؟بحث در سه محور خواهد بودابتدا به دست آوردن تابعیت ایران است بخت بعد از به دست دادن تابعیت ایران است.
 
بدست آرودن تابعیت ایران:
1-اجرای سیستم خاک و خون
2- ازدواج
3-پذیرش حاکمیت ایران  
تابعیت ایران را ممکن است به سه طریق به دست آورد
1)بوسیله اجرای سیستم خاک یا خون تابعیتی که بر اساس این سیستم ها به دست می آید تابعیت
اصل و مبدأ است.
2)بوسیله ازدواج است 3)بوسیله پذیرش تابعیت ایران است تابعیتی که به وسیله دو دو طریق اخیر به دست می شود اکتسابی است.تابعیت اصلی ایران کی هست؟در چه مواردی شخص درای تابعیت اصلی ایرانی است،تابعیت اصلی ایرانی یا از طریق اعمال سیستم خاک است یا از طریق سیستم خون؟اما در چه مواردی شخص با اعمال سیستم خاک ایرانی می شود و چه زمانی از طریق اعمای سیستم خون ایرانی می شود.
موارد اعمال سستم خاک:قانونگذارها سیستم خاک را به صورت مطلق قبول نکرد.بلکه آن را به صورت مشروط پذیرفته است اما قانونگذار ما تنها بر اساس تولد شخص در خاک ایران به شخص تابعیت نمی دهد.قانونگذار ما سیستم خون را پذیرفته است تنها در جهار مورد سیستم خاک را پذیرفته است .در بند3-4-5 قانون مدنی و یک مورد هم در ماده 978.
جلسه نهم
موارد اعمال سیستم خاک در قانون اساسی
متولدین در ایران
یکی از موارد در بند 3 ماده 967 قانون مدنی است که می شوید اشخاص زیر ابتاع ایران  محسوب می شوند: الف- کسانیکه در ایران متولد شده و پدر و مادر آنها غیر معلوم باشد در این (بند3) سیستم خاک به صورت مشروط پذیرفته شده است پدر و مادر شخص زمانی حقیقتاً نامعلوم است که واقعاً  کسی اطلاعی از پدر و مادر شخص نداشته باشد ولی گاهی معلوم است که بچه از کدام زن و مرد متولد شده است ولی قانونگذار در این زن و مرد را پدر و مادر طفل معرفی نمی کند زیرا از راه مشروع به دنیا آمده است.
مورد دوم بند 4 ماده 976 ق.م ذکر شده که می گویند کسانیکه در ایران  از پدر و مادر خارجی که یکی از آنها در ایران متولد شده است تیغه ایران است و سیستم خاک بر او اعمال می شود. سیستم خاک در این مورد هم بصورت مشروط پذیرفته شده است.
مورد سوم در بند 5 ماده 976 ق.م است ج- کسانیکه  در ایران از پدری که تبعه خارجی است بوجود آمده و بلا فاصله پس از رسیدن به 18 سال تمام یکسال در ایران اقامت کرده باشد که باز هم بصورت مشروط اعمال می شود البته این ماده از حیث مدت اقامت اعمال دارد زیرا  مشخص نیست که مشخص چه مدت در ایران اقامت داشته  باشد حدوداً 5 سال متوالیاً یا متفاوتاً در ایران اگر اقامت داشته باشد ایران تلقی می شود.
تبصره:
* قانونگذار ما می گوید استنائاً اطفال متولد از نمایندگان سیاسی و کنونی مشمول بند 4 و 5 نخواهد شد.
مورد چهارم در ماده 978 قانون مدنی پیش بینی شده است در برخی کشورها سیستم خاک بصورت مطلق پذیرفته شده است مثل امریکا – کانادا- قانونگذار ما در مقابل این کشورها رفتار متقابل انجام داده است. زیرا در آن کشورها بچه ای که از پدر و مادر ایرانی در خاک آنها به دین بیاید بچه تبعه همان کشور خواهد بود. در نتیجه ایران هم همان قانون را برای آنها خواسته اعمال کند این مورد را تنها در مقابل کشورهایی اعمال می کند که سیستم خاک را بصورتن مطلق پذیرفته اند. ماده 978 ق.م نسبت به اطفال کر در ایران از اتباع دولتی متولد شده اند.
 
مواد اعمال سیستم خون
بر خلاف تصمیم خاک که بصورت مشروط پذیرفته شده است سیستم خون بصورت مطلق بوده و هیچگونه شرایطی برای اعمال آن مشخص نشده است زیرا قانونگذار در بند 2 ماده 976 قانون م مطرح کرده  که کسانیکه پدر آنها ایرانی است ایرانی هستند. اعم از اینکه در ایران یا در خارج متولد  شده باشد باید متذکر شد در کشورها سیستم خون فقط از طریق پدر قابل اعمال است از طریق مادر قابل اعمال نیست یعنی تاثیری در تابعیت بچه ندارد که مادر تابعیت کجا  را داشته  باشد  ولی در برخی موارد در برخی کشورها سیستم خون هم از طریق پدر و هم از طریق مادر قابل  اعمال است مثل فرانسه در کشورها فقط یک تابعیت آن هم ایرانی بودن را مطرح می کند مهم نیست  تابعیت مادر ولی تصور درستی نیست ممکن است پدر ایرانی باشد و مادر ایرانی نباشد و برعکس پس بهتر است سیستم از طریق مادر، اعمال شود در اجرای سیستم خون ممکن است ما با 2 شکل روبرو شویم:
1- آیا منظور قانونگذار از پدر ایرانی از بند  2 ماده 976 پدر قانونی است یا پدر غیر قانونی را شامل می شود.
2- تابعیت  پدر در چه زمانی ملاک است؟ چون ممکن است  از زمان انعقاد نطفه تا تولد تابعیت  تغییر کرده باشد کدام تابعیت را باید برای بچه در نظر گرفت؟
پاسخ:
سوال برخی می گردد به اینکه آیا سیستم خون برای فرزندان نامشروع قابل اعمال است یا نه؟ باید گفت که جواب منفی است زیرا  قبلاً گفته شد برای اعمال تیم خون 2 شرط لازم است اولین شرط این است که پدر و مادر او معلوم باشد و این پدر و مادر و رای تابعی باشند. اطفالی که از رابطه نامشروع بوجود می آیند پدر و مادر طفل نامعلوم است و دیگر سیستم خون اعمال نمی شود پس قانونگذار ما منظورش از پدر، پدرقانونی است چگونه تابعیت رابطه نامشروع را تعیین کنیم. هرگاه طفلی در ایران از پدر و مادر نامعلوم بیاید پس پدر و مادرش هم نامعلوم است طبق ماده 976 بند 3 و این نکته که پدر و مادر هر دو نامعلوم و مادر معلوم است ولی سیستم خون قابل اعمال نیست ولی پدر معلوم و مادر نامعلوم در این مورد سیستم خون قابل اعمال است در حالیکه نه پدر و نه مادر باشد سیستم خاک اعمال می شود نه سیستم خون
پاسخ سوال 2:
حقوقدانان معتقدند چون زمان انعقاد نطفه زمان دقیقی نیست اثباتش مشکل است و تابعیت بعد زا تواد مورد نیاز انسان است حتی تاریخ تولد  اثباتش بسیار آسان است در نتیجه می گویند تابعیتی که پدر در هنگام تواد بچه دارد ملاک است  مگر اینکه پدر فوت کرده باشد در هنگام تولد تابعیت پدر در زمان انعقاد  نطفه در نظر گرفته می شود.
 
تابعیت اکتسابی
از دو طریق بدست می آید  1- ازدواج 2- پذیرش به تابعیت ایران
1- ازدواج با مردان ایران تابعیت  ایران را کسب می کند زیرا  قانونگذار ما در اینجا سیستم وحدت  تابعیت را پذیرفته است زیرا وجود تابع یت های مختلف در خانواده  مشکل ایجاد می کند قانونگذار ما می خواهد زنان خارجی وقتی با مردان ایرانی ازدواج کنند اتوماتیک مان تابعیت  ایران را کسب می کند این تابعیت تابعیت قطعی است حتی طلاق زن و فوت شوهر باعث از بین رفتن تابعیت  نمی شود ولی قانونگذار یک تسهیلاتی برای  این زنان در نظر گرفته است که این زنان اگر بخواهند می توانند  با اطلاع وزارت خارجه ایران تابعیت  قبلی خود را به دست بیاورند در یک مورد استثنائی قائل شده  است که اگر از شوهر ایرانی زن خارجی فوت کرده باشد و فرزند داشته باشد که کمتر از 18 سال دارد در نتیجه برای حمایت  از اطفال ایرا نی قانونگذار می گوید این زن نمی توانند تابعیت  ایران را از دست بدهد بعد از اینکه زن با تابعیت قبلی خود برگشت از مزایای ایرانی بودن  برخوردار نخواهد بود در نتیجه باید مقدار زیادی از اموال غ منقول خود را در ظرف  یکسال  به ایرانیان بفروشد.
 
جلسه دهم
گفتیم : تابعیت اصلی ایران از طریق سیستم خاک و خون است ولی برای بدست آوردن تابعیت اکتسابی 2 روش لازم است
تابعیت اکتسابی :
1- ازدواج
2- پذیرش به تابعیت  ایرانی
1- طریقه  ازدواج در مورد زنان خارجی است  که با مرد ایرانی ازدواج می کند و تابعیت شوهر را قبول می کند نظر قانونگذار اینست که زن به تابعیت  ایران در می آید تابعیت قطعی است.
2- یعنی یک شخص خارجی چگونه می تواند به تابعیت ایران پذیرفته شود شخصی که تابعیت اصلی ایران را ندارد یعنی هنگام تولد  ایرانی نشده کسیکه از طریق ازدواج تابعیت ایران را بدست نیاورد قانونگذار بند بند 7 ماده  976 اشخاص ذیل ت بعه ایران هستند.
- هر تبعه خارجی که تابعیت ایران را تحصیل کرده باشد.
- هر زن خارجی  که تابعیت  ایران  را اختیار کند.
- کسانیکه در ایران متولد شود و پدر و مادر آنها نامعلوم باشد.
بعلاوه قانون اساسی ایران این حق را به یگانه می دهد که به تابعیت ایران پذیرفته شوند.
قانونگذار در اصل 42 قانون اساسی در ایران این مطلب را بین می کند: بیگانگان می توانند به تابعیت ایران در بیایند ولی علت این است که قانون اساسی ایران به چه کسی تابعیت ایران را می دهد. قانون اساسی فقهد مجوز را صادر می کند شرایط را در سایر قوانین بیان می کند. تابعیت یک او سیاسی است هر کشوری خود تصمیم می گیرد چه کسی تبعه است و شرایطی را بین می کند: از جمله
 
شرایط پذیرش تابعیت ایران
در موارد 979 و 983 بیان شده الف: شرط اقامت لازم کسب تابعیت را علاقه مندی به ایران می داند برای احراز این  علاقه مندی نشانه ای را پیش بینی می کند و آن نشانه اقامت 5 سال متوالی در ایران است باید توجه داشت منظور از اقامت ، اقامت قانونی است یعنی از دولت ایران  پروانه اقامت گرفته باشد قانونگذار تعدادی اشخاص را با صلاحدید هیئت وزیران پاره ای از اشخاص را بدون رعایت شرط تابعیت  بیان می کند.
ماده 979:
- سن 18 سال تمام
- پنج سال  متناوب یا متوالی در ایران سکونت داشته باشد.
- فرار خدمت نباشد
- عدم  جرم سیاسی
ماده 980: کسانیکه  به امور عام المنضمه ایران خدمت کرده باشند مدرسه سازی و پل سازی و یا کسانی که دارای مقام عال در ایران هستند و یا همسرداری و بچه ایرانی دارندو بدون رعایت شرط اقامت ممکن به تابعیت ایران  مرسوم خارجیانی که زن ایرانی دارند و از روی اولادی دارند (ازدواج زن ایرانی با مرد ایرانی (البرادعی)) شرط اقامت ممکن است رعایت  شود برنخی افراد در خارج در خدمت دولت ایران هستند مثلاً در سفارت امریکا یک ایرانی کار می کند قانونگذار ما می گوید خدمت چنین افراد در خارج برای دولت ایران در حکم اقامت در ایران است مانند سفارت.
ب- شرط لیاقت: افرادی که می خواهند تابعیت  ایران را داشته باشند باشد لیاقت ایرانی بودن را داشته باشند مثلاً اگر یک  خارجی فرار از خدمت نباشد- جرم سیاسی انجام نداده باشد.
ج- شرط مکنت: قانونگذار خواهد کسی را که رباخورده به تابعیت قبول کند بلکه افرادی را قبول می کند که دارای حقوق کافی برای خود و دارای مال و منال باشند قانونگذار یکسری موارد بر این بیان  می کند ازجمله آشنایی به زبا ن  فارسی و تاریخ ایران – آشنایی به قانون اساسی و نسبت به قانون اساسی احساس وفاداری کند.
شرایط اجرای این حق:
ماده 979 ق.م
- 5 سال اقامت در ایران
- مرتکب جرم سیاسی نباشد.
- آشنایی به قانون اساسی
- شرط اهلیت (بالغ- عامل – رشید) فقط به رکن سن اشاره شد که باید 18 سال تمام باشد.
- شخص مجنون نمی تواند تابعیت ایران را بپذیرد.
 
تشریفات پذیرش به تابعیت ایران
تصمیم نهایی با هیئت وزیران است  گفتیم که تابعیت یک امر سیاسی است و ممکن است هسئت دولت آن را  به رسمیت نشناسد. هیئت  وزیران در رد و قبول آن آزاد نه و نیازی به ارائه دلیل ندارند. تکمیل پرونده با وزارت امور خارجه است از جمله وظایف نیروی انتظامی
تصمیم گیری نهایی با هیئت وزیران است گفتیم که تابعیت یک امر سیاسی است و ممکن هیئت دولت آن را به رسمیت نشناسد. هیئت وزیران در رد و قبول آن آزادانه و نیازی به ارائه دلیل ندارند. تکمیل پرونده با وزرات امور خارجه است از جمله وظایف نیروی انتظامی می دهد گواهی می دهد که بصورت متناوب در ایران بوده بعلاوه گواهی صادر می کند که در هیچ کشوری مرتکب جرم نشده و دارای امکانات مالی است.
سلب تابعیت در ایران منعقد یک مورد است اصل لزوم تابعیت وقتی کسی تابعیت ایرانی را بدست می آورد حق اوست و کسی نمی تواند از او سلب کند مگر اینکه خودش تابعیت کشور دیگر را بپذیرد گواهی صادر شده برای فرد را باید 1 نفر وزارت کشور- 1 نفر آموزش پرورش 1 نفر دادگستری تایید کرده باشند بعد اگر وزارت امور خارجه نواقصی دید می تواند آن را اصلاح کند موضوع در هیت وزیران مطرح می شود در صورت تابعیت ایرانی سند تابعیت به شخص داده می شود و صدور شناسنامه برای فرد از سوی اداره ثبت اسناد تهران است.
 
آثار پذیرش به تابعیت ایرانی
وقتی یک شخص به تابعیت ایران پذیرفته شد آثارش در خود و خانواده اش مشاهده می شود. خانواده پذیرش تابعیت ایران نسبت به اولات پسری که فرزند 18 سال تمام یا بیشتر داشته باشد پذیرش به تابعیت در این مورد موثر نیست چون فرزند تابعیت پدر نیست اگر پدر را تابعیت ایران را می پذیرد وضعیت تابعیت تاثیری در وی نخواهد داشت ولی در مورد اولاد صغیر شخص و زوجه شخص موثر است. قانونگذار ما وقتی شخصی به تابعیت ایران پذیرفته شد اولاد صغیر وی هم ایرانی می شود ماده 84 ن م به طفل صغیر اختیار می دهد که بعد از رسیدن به 18 سال به تابعیت قلبی پدر بزرگوار برگردد و این اظهار را باید به وزارت امور خارجه اعلام کند اگر به تابعیت ایران برگردد باید طی یکسال به وزارت امور خارجه گزارشش را بدهد و با در دست داشتن صدور گواهینامه مورد پذیرش قرار می گیرد.
باید از کشور متبوع پدرش گواهی به وزارت امور خارجه بیاورد و تابعیت کشور جدید را بپذیرد (اینگونه اشخاص دارای تابعیت مضاعف هستند در 18 سالگی که خودش کبیر شد پاسپورت می گیرد. اما در عین یکسان می تواند از تابعیت ایران را رد کند و به تابعیت پدر برسد)
پذیرش به تابعیت ایران در زوجه وی موثر است ماده 984 ق.م: هر گاه یک مرد به تابعیت ایران پذیرفته شود زن وی ایرانی خواهد شد اتوماتیک است یعنی هیت وزیران با مرد موافقت می کنند از آن لحظه زنش ایرانی است قانونگذار تسهیلاتی به زن می دهد از آن زمانیکه زن به تبع شوهر ایرانی شد از آن تاریخ ظرف یکسال می تواند به تابعیت قبلی شوهر رجوع کند باید این اظهار را به وزارت خارجه اعلام کند و تابعیت قبلی شوهرش را داشته باشد.
چرا به تابعیت شوهر بر می گردد؟
ماده 984 ق.م باد اصلاح شود این زن می تواند در حد یکسان به تابعیت قبلی خودش برسد نه تابعیت شوهرش
خود شخص اولا باید گفت که چون این شخص ایرانی همان تکالیفی که بر عهده ایرانیان است بر عهده اینها هم خواهد بود این افراد باید تابعیت نظام قوانین ایران باشد. مانند هر ایرانی دیگر باید به شئون ملی احترام بگذارد. باید خدمت نظام وظیفه انجام دهد. انجام خدمت نظام وظیفه در خارج از ایران رافع این تکلیف نیست مگر اینکه طبق قانون نظام وظیفه ایران معاف شود.
اشخاص خارجی از اینکه حقوق ایرانی برخوردار خواهند بود مانند هر ایرانی حق رای ازدواج اما قانونگذار از بسیاری مشاغل مهم محروم می کند: ماده 983 ق.م قبل از انقلاب برخی محرومیت ها موقتی بود مثلا این شخص تا 10 سال نمی توانست نماینده شود ولی در 1370 محرومیت دائمی است.
-                    ریاست جمهوری و معاونین عضویت در شورای نگهبان
-                    وزارت و کفالت وزارت و استانداری و فرمانداری
-                    عضویت شورای استان و شهرستان و شهر
-                    استخدام در وزارت امور خارجه و نیز احراز هر گونه مأموریت سیاسی
-                    قضاوت
-                    عالیترنی رده فرماندهی ارتش و سپاه و نیروی  انتظامی
-                    تصدی پست های مهم اطلاعاتی و امنیتی
سه مبحث     در مورد تابعیت:
1-به دست آوردن تابعیت ایران:1-ازدواج 2-پذیرش به تابعیت ایران
2-از دست دادن تابعیت ایران
3-بازگشت به تابعیت ایران
موضوع:از دست دادان تا بعیت ایران
1)ازدواج:زنان ایرانی ممکن است در اثر ازدواج تابعیت ایرانی را از دست بدهند و در مورد ازدواج زنان ایرانی با مردان خارجی 3 مرحله ممکن است به وجود بیاید.
الف-زن ایرانی با مرد خارجی ازدواج بکند قانون کشور متبوعه مرد معتقد به سیستم استقلال تابعیت است یعنی قانون  می گویدازدواج تأثیری در تابعیت ندارد(استقلال نسبی)و زن ایرانی همچنان در تابعیت خود باقی می ماندبرای اینذکه قانونگذار ما در مورد ازدواج زنان ایرانی با مردان خارجی معتقد به استقلال نسبی یعنی تأثیری در تابعیت زنان ایرانی ندارد مگر اینکه قانون کشور متبوعه مرد تابعیت کشور مرد را بر زن تحمیل کند.
ب-زن ایرانی با مرد خارجی ازدواج کند قانون کشور متبوعه فرد معتقد به سستم وحدت تابعیت باشد(یعنی تابعیت باید با مرد باشد)معتقد به این باشد که زن باید تابعیت شوهرش را داشته باشد یعنی تابعیت مرد بر زن در اثر ازدواج تحمیل می شود(در اینصورت زن ایرانی تابعیت ایران را از دست خواهد داد و به تابعیت شوهر در می آید مگر اینکه دولت متبوعه مرد به زن تحمیل کند،در اینصورت تابعیت ایران را از دست می دهد.
ج-زن ایرانی با مرد خارجی ازدواج می مند که در اینصورت قانون کشور متبوعه مرد ،زن را در پذیرش تابعیت شوهر مخیر می داند یعنی خود صاحب اختیار استدر اینصورت باید  به وزارت امور خارجه ایران اطلاع دهد و اینکه به چه دلیل می خواهد تابعیت ایران را از دست بدهد در 2 حالت زن ایرانی تابعیت را از دست می دهد:
1-زن با مرد خارجی ازدواج کند و تابعیت شوهر را دارد.
2-کشور متبوع مرد پذیرش زن را مخیر می داند.زن ایرانیئتابعیت ایرانی را از دست می دهد .وقتی زنان ایرانی در اثر ازدواج تابعیت خود را از دست می دهند چه آثاری مترتب است است این زنان دیگر ایرانی نخواهند بود از لحظه ای که ایرانی نیستند از حقوق ایرانی برخوردار نیستند و بعلاوه آن مقدار مال منقول می توانند داشته باشند که موجب سلطه خارجی بر کشو.ر نباشد قبل از سال 1360 این زنان مال منقول را هنگام ازدواج که دارند خواهند داشت ولی در سال 1360 قانونگذار این زنان که تابعیت را از دست می دهند مقذداری مال منقول خواهد داشت که موجب سلطه اقتصادی نباشد مشخص نبود چه کسی باید تشخیص دهد اموال موجب سلطه است[نهاد مشخص نبود]در سال 1370 ق.م را که اصلاح کردن پاسخ سؤال اول داده شد –کمیسیونی مرکب از وزارت اطلاعات
حقوق بین الملل خصوصی
در حقوق بین المللی وضع بیگانگان چگونه است ح ع مربوط به شخصیتت است یعنی حقوقی است که به منظور حفظ ذات عرض انسانی وضع شده است یک سلسه حقوقی هستند نه لازمه شخصیت انسان استلازم است این حقوق باشد مانند حق آزادی تحصیل عقیده و بیان شغل . اینها یک سلسله حقوقی هستند که برای حفظ انسانیت انسان لازم است. از اینها تعبیر به شخصیت است در یک عبارت ح ع هم می گویند برای اینکه اجرا و اعمال حقوق به صرفیت کارکنان وعمال دولت صورت میگیرد چون انسانها در اجرای این حقوق با ماموران دولتی روبرو می شود از این رو به ح ع معروف است آزادی بیان و عقیده و احترام به شخصیت اجرای اینها بستگی به تصمیم دولت داردمثلا حق زندگی باید دید دولت به این چگونه        می نگرد آیا ضمانت اجرا بیش بینی می کند دولت محدودیتهایی در نظر می گیرد چون اجرای این حقوق دولت است دولت نماینده مردم است و به عنوان حقوق مربوط به شخصیت است ح ع آن حقوقی است که به منظور شخصیت انسان پیش بینی شده است و هر انسانی باید از این حقوق برخوردار باشد بدون این حقوق انسانیت انسان معنا پیدا میکند فلاسفه به اینها ح فضری می گویند فلاسفه غربی از اینها تعبیر به ح طبیعی می کنند همان حقوق بشر که محبت میکنند در همین راستاست یعنی طبیعت انسان اقتضا میکند انسان چنین حقوقی را دارا باشد و این حقوق را عقل بشر میکند انسان با اینها معنی پیدا میکند در هر حال یکسری حقوق وجود دارد که لازمه شخصیت انسان است همه کشورها بر این باورند که بیگانه از حقوقی که لازمه شخصیت است  باید برخوردار باشد همان بحث حقوق بشر بر اساس همین حق است . در کشور ما تا آنجا که شخصیت انسان ایجاب می کند بیگانه از ح ع برخوردار است از ح مربوط مربوط به شخصیت برخوردار باشند قانونگذار ما ضمانت اجراهای بیان کرده و قید و شرط برای آن بیان کرده است
1- حمایت از جان و مال و مسکن اتباع بیگانه : اتباع بیگانه طبق قوانین و معاهدات از حیث جان جان و مال و مسکن در امان هستند یعنی وظیفه دولت حمایت از اینها است اصول ششم و سیزدهم ق ا این حقوق را برای بیگانگان شناخته بود بعد از انقلاب در اصل 22 قانون اساسی برای خارجیان هم شناخته شده است حیثیت جان مال و حقوق و مسکن و شغل اشخاص از ترض مصون است در مواردی که قانون بیان کرده است
آن اصول اساسی که قید ایرانی بودن ندارد شامل همه انسانها ست اصل 22 هم همینطور است اشخاص را به صورتی میگوید اعم از اینکه ایرانی باشد یا خارجی
امروزه در معاهدات بر این اصل تاکید شده وکشور ها در مقابل یکدیگر تاکید میکنند  جان و مال ایرانیان درآسمان مصون باشد و برعکس
حتی قوانین عادی این حق را تضمین میکند به بعضی که قانون مجازات فردی میان تبعه وبیگانه نمیگذارد فرقی از جهت حمایت بین تبعه و بیگانه نیست
2- حق ورود عبور – اقمت و خروج اتباع بیگانه است اینه آیا بیگانگان حق ورود دارند به یک کشوری یا حق عبور که از کشور عبور کند آیا اقامت دارد یا نه و مسئله خروج در این مورد 2 طرز تفکر وجود دا رد الف طرز تفکر اخلاقی بیگانگان آزادند د رهمه موارد ورود و خروج و اقامت نباید محدودیت برای بیگانه باشد دوولت که بوجود آمد نباید مانع ورود و خروج اشخاص باشد بیگانگان ازادند ب- بیگانگان حق ورود و اقامت و عبور ندارند مگر اینه یک دولت بنابه محدودیت خود اجازه دهد
 افروزه تفکر مورد قثبول آزادی عبور و مرور است منتها با این قید که هر کشوری می تواند هر شرایطی در نظر بگیرد اعضای موس ح ب د ر1928 در ژ نو تشکیل شد همین نظر را پذیرفتند منتها تحت شرایطی که هر دولت تعیین میکند یعنی دولتها حق ندارند جلوی ورود و خروج را بگیرند در ایران همین تفکر وجود دارد قانونگذار ما شرایطی را بیان کرده است
ورود بیگانه به ایران
اصل آزادی را پذیرفته ولی بیگانه برای ورود باید از ماموران صلاحیت دار اجازه بگیرد برای این منظور شخص باید یک مدرک معتبر بین المللی بنام پاسپورت داشته باشد اول باید هویتش مشخص باشد گذرنامه توسط مامورین صلاحیتدار در داخل کشور صادر شود که به موجب آن تبعه از کشور خارج و داخل می شود معمولا صدور گذرنامه  و به عهده اداره گذرنامه نیروی انتظامی است این وظیفه ب رعهده کنسولگری هم است بیگانه اگر بخواهد وارد ایران شود در وهله اول باید گذرنامه داشته باشد گذرنامه  انواع متععدی دارد
گذرنامه سیاسی یا دیپلماتیک  رنگ سبز برای افراد سیاسی صدور توسط وزارت امور خارجه
2- گذرنامه خدمت  رنگ سرمه ای برای انجام ماموریت اعتبار  فقط از طرف دولت به عنوان مامور میروند
3- گذرنامه عادی با رنگ قهوه ای برای افراذ عادی اعتبار 5 سال
4- گذرنامه سازمان ملل متحد
این گذرنامه سیاسی غالبا وزارت امور خارجه به کسانی میدهند که مشاغل سیاسی دارند و برای انجام ماموریت های سیاسی از طرف دولت به کشورهای خارجی میروند این افراد دارای  مسئولیت های دیپلماتیک در سفارتخانه ها هستند عناوینی از قبیل سفیر و وزیر مختار دبیر اول دوم و سوم وابسته هستند که عهده دار انجام وظایف سیاسی هستند برای این قبیل اشخاص وزارت امور خارجه وزارت امور خارجه برای این افراد گذرنامه صادر میکند این نوع گذرنامه از نظر رنگ با سایر گذرنامه ها متفاوت است در ایران رنگش سبز است این گذرنامه برای مدت ماموریت صادر میشود مثلا اگر سفید باشد به همان تعداد سال است
گذرنامه خدمت سرمه ای  وزارت امور خارجه به کسانی می دهد که به صورت کارمند اداری کارشناس و دارنده بورسیه های تحصیلی و تحقیقاتی و متخصصان و نمایندگان اقتصادی حامل ماموریتهای اداری برای دولت متبوعه هستند بعضی اشخاص اعزام می شوندمدت اعتبار گذرنامه یک سال است و رنگ سرمه ای دارد صفقط از طرف دولت به عنوان مامور میروند
گذرنامه عادی  این گذرنامه را اداره کل گذرنامه نیرو ی انتظامی ایران درداخل کشور و ماموران کنسولی شاغل در سفارتخانه در خارج از کشور برای کلیه اشخاص عادی که ممنوع از ورود نباشند هست یاسایر دوایر که اداره نیروی انتظامی تعیین کرده باشد مدت اعتبار 5 سال است و برای یک دوره 5 ساله قابل تمدید است
رنگ قهوه ای گذرنانه سازمان ملل متحد   این نوع گذرنامه برای ماموران و کارشناسان خود که برای برقراری و حفاظت و امداد رسانی به مردم و کمکهای بهداشتی و آموزش به نقاط دنیا سفر میکنند
خود سازمان ملل سه شکل دارد:
1- سیاسی قرمز
2– خدمت سبز
3– عادی  کارهای معمولی آبی
اجاز از مقام صلاحیتدار ( ویزا ) است که معادل فارسی اش روادید است ویزا یعنی اجازه کسی که وارد ایران میشود باید به مامورین کنسولی ایران در خارج از کشور برود مامورین کنسولی برای دادن ویزا باید دقت کند ماده 2 قانون ورود و اقامت اتباع بیگانه مصوب 131
مأموران کنسولی را از دادن رویداد از برخی اشخاص جلوگیری می کنند ،مثلاً1-کسانی که مدارکشان مورد تردید است اجازه داده نمی شود .2-کسانی حضورشان در ایران موجب بی امنی و ناامنی خواهد شد .3-کساطنیکه مرتکب جرم در ایران یا در کشورهای دیگر شده اند.4-کسانی که قبلاً از ایران خارج شده اند .5-کسانی که ایرانی هستند و به خارج رفته ولی از کشورخارجی پاسپورت گرفتند و وارد ایران می شوند.
بنابراین ویزا که داده می شود باید دقت شود.ویزا به صورت مهری است که روی پاسپورت زده می شود نشان دهنده اجازه-نوع اجازه مدت اقارمت ذکر می شود.مثلاً برای تحصیل و مدت اقامت .
به شخص ویزا داده می شود حداکثر سه ماه می توان در ایران اقامت داشته باشد.قبل از ج ج اول اخذ ویزا ضروری بود ولی بعد از ج ج اول برخی کشورها ویزا را رد کردند و اجازه دادند بیگانه به راحتی وارد شوند.
امروزه کشورها توافق می کنند در ارتباط با یکدیگر نیازی به اخذ رویداد نباشید.مثلاً در کشورهای اروپایی برای رفتن به کشورهای اروپایی نیاز به گرفتن ویزا ندارند که معروف به شنگن است.
افراد معاف از ویزا  در ایران:
1-مصونین سیاسی دارند کسانیرکه مشاغل سیاسی دارند.
2-کسانیکه به عنوان هیئت اعزامی هستند.
3-مأمورین سیاسی و سفیران خارج.
کشور ایران با کشورهای نظیر ترکیه-ژاپن –کره جنوبی-قبرس  چین-پاکستان-کلمبیا-سوئیس-مجارستان-بلغارستان-سنگاپور-ترکمنستان-ارمنستان-روسیه-آذربایجان-مالزی-ویتنام-مقدونیه-و اکراین قرار دارد  .لغو رویداد برای مدت اقامت مجاز یک الی سه رماه برای دارندگان گذرنامه های سیاسی و خدمت امضا نموده اند و برعکس.
همینطور دولت ایران با دولت ترکیه-سنگاپور-مالزی-مقدونیه-عربستان-مامرات متحده عربی –عمان –کویت-بحرین –قطربرای دارندگان گذرنامه های عادی قرار داد لغو رویداد امضا مرده است.(افرادی مثل ما)به محض رود به این کشورها ویزا امضا می شود نیازی به ؟ این کشورها در ایران نیست.
عبور بیگانه از ایران:
قائوونگذار ما اصل عبور را پذیرفته ،مثلاً یک شخصی از ایران عبور می کند تا به عربستان برود .قانونگذار ما شرایطی را در نظر گرفته برای عبور بیگانگان از ایران شرایطی لازم است:
از بیگانگان باید از مرزهای وزارت امر خارجه مجاز  که با هماهنگی وزارت کشور است عبور  کند و لازم است از مأموران مرزی اجازخ بگیرد(هم از مرز مجاز و اخذ اجازه از مأموران مرزی مجاز و پرداخت حق عبور بر اساس تعرفه ای که تعیین شده است)یک شکل از حق عبور حق ترانزیت است.برای اینکه یک کالا برود باید از کشور ها عبور  کند و برای آنکه کشوری عبور ترانزیت  می دهد.بعلاوه حداکثر ظرفیت 15 روز باید از ایران عبور بکنند که در هر مورد نیروی انتظامی مدت عبور را تعیین می کند و بعلاوه از مسیرهایی که نیروی انتظامی مشخص می کند برود و این بیگانه باید طی این مسیرها حرکت کند اگر حرف نیروی انتظامی را گوش نکند نیروی انتظامی می تواند اخراج کند.
بحث اقامت:
1-موقت یا توقف
2-دائم
در ایران اصل آزادی اقامت پذیرفته شده بیگانگان آزادند و اقامت آنها با اجازه مأموران صلاحیتدار ایرانی باشد برای اقا مت در ایران شرایطی وجود دارد.
ماده 4 قانون ورود اقا مت اتباع بیگانه مصوب1310 دو نوع اقامت را بیان کرده:موقت:زمانی است که بیگانه برای سیاحت یا تحصیل یا تجارت برای هو موقت دیگری وارد ایران می شودو قصد اقامت دائم در ایران ندارد.مثلاً مشهد و قم .وقتی بیگانه برای مدت موقت وارد می شود اقامت موقت است لازم است شرایط ورود(گذرنامه معتبر و اخذ ویزا داشته باشد)باید خود را مدت 8 روز به نیروی انتظامی محلئ معرض کند و مدارک لازم رابه نیروی انتظامی بدهد تا پروانه اقامت موقت برای او صادر می شود.شخصی که پروانه اقامت دارد محل اقامت وی مشخص می شود.حال اگر شخصی خواست محل اقامت را تغییر دهد نه تنها باید به محل اقامت قلبی اطلاع دهد باید خود را ظرف 8 روز به محل اقامت جدید اطلاع دهد.
جلسه 14:
اقامت دایم زمانی است که شخص قصد دارد بطور دایم مکان اصلی خود را ایران قرار دهد تا قبل از تصویب نامه قانون ورود1352 مخصوص نبوده با چه شرایطی بیگانه در ایران می تواند اقامت داشته باشد تا تصویب و آیین نامه شرایط بیگانه معلوم نبود اما در ماده 5 شرایط اقامت دایم پیش بینی شد برای اقمت دایم در ایران لازم است که بیگانه شرایط ورود  را داشته باشدو بعلاوه نیروی انتظامی شرایط مقرر در ماده 3 را رعایت خواهد کرد ماده 3:نیروی انتظامی باید توجه کند که شخص دارای شرایط ویزا است یا نه نیروی انتظامی بعد از بررسی با اخذ رضایت از شهربانی کل کشور اجازه اقامت می دهد با شرلیط ذیل:
1-متقاضی بودن با دارا بودن 5 سال اقامت متوالی در ایران بوده و هنگام تقاضا به سن 18 سال رسیدگی باشد.
2-متقاضی دارای 2 سال اقا مت متوالی در ایران بوده و مقام عالی علمی یا شغل یا تخصصی او در امور تولیدی و عمرانی با تأیید صلاحدید مقامات بالا رسیده باشد.
3-متقاضی دارای دو سال سابقه اقامت قانونی متوالی در ایران ب وده و خدمات شایسته و ارزنده داشته باشد به تأییدات مقامات عالی صلاحیت دار رسیده باشد.
4-متقاضی دارای زن و فرزند ایرانی باشد که شرط اقامت لازم نیست.
5-متقاضی دارای دو سال سابقه اقامت دایمی در ایران بوده و در امور تولیدی و عمرانی ایرانی که مورد تأیید مقامات صالح دارد در ایران باشد سرمایه گذاری کرده باشد.
6-متقاضی دارای دو سال اقامت متوالی در ایران بوده در آمد شخصی یا حقوقی یا مستمر بازنشستی او به تأیید یکی از بانکهای ایران رسیده باشد پروانه اقامت دایم هر 3 سال باید تمدید شود و باید دارندگان این چنین پروانه نیز تغییر مکان خود را در عرض 8 روز به نیروی انتظامی خبر دهد.
در مورد خروج بیگانگان از ایران چنانچه اقامت بیگانه کمتر از 90 روز باشد نیاز به کسب اجازه از نیروی انتظامی نیست فقط فقط هنگام خروج از مرز باید  اعلامیه برگه خروج رد کند ولی اگر بیش از 90 روز باشد لازم است از نیروی انتظامی ویزای خروج بگیرد.
؟ نسبت به ورود و خروج اتباع بی   گانه:
برخی از اشخاص به خاطر دارا بودن موقعیت سیاسی و مخصوصی هستند از مقررات ورود و خروج مستثنی هستند.
1-کسانیرکه دارای مسئو.لیت سیاسی هستند همانند سفرا.
2-مأموران کنسولی اول خارجه و افراد عاتله آنها که در یک خانواده هستند شرط رفتار متقابل
3-اعضاء هیئت هظای اول خارجه که با موافقت دولت ایران وارد ایران می شوندو دارای ویزا سیاسی دولت ایران می باشند.طبق ماده 8 آیین نامه اجرایی قانون ورود و اقامت اتباع بیگانه که دفترچه اقامت از ناجا می گیرندلازم نیست سایر مقررات مربوط به ورود و خروج در مورد اینها رعایت شود.
اخراج بیگانه
:
برخی مواقع ایجاب می شود که دولتی بیگانه را بدون رضایت وی بطور اجبار اخراج نماید در  برخی موارد مصلحت کشور در این است که بیگانه را از ایران اخراج کند در مورد اخراج باید توجه کرد که کشورها زمانی باید دست به اخراج بیگانه بزنند که حضور بیگانه و اگر دولتی بیگانه را اخراج کرد دلیل برای عمل خود ندارد ،یعنی مورد بازخواست قرار نمی گیرد،چرا که دولت به کشور خود حاکمیت مطلق دارد.فقط در یک مورد مجبور به ازائه دلیل است و آن اینرکه دولت متبوعی بیگانه به حمایت از اتباع خود بپردازد و دعوای دو کشور به دیوان بیالمللی کشیده شود .برای این که اخراج با اصول بین المللی بوده باشد باید جنبه فردی داشته باشدنه دسته جمعی.یعنی کشوری نباید  افراد کشور دیگر را به طور جمعی اخراج کند مگر در زمان جنگ و قطع روابط سیاسی.
در کشور ماایران اخراج در قانون در ماده 11 دو مورد را ذکر کرده که جنبه کلی دارد.
1-در صورتیکه بیگانه برخلاف مقررات قانون اقارمت ورود اتباع بیگانه عمل نماید.
2-در صورتیکه مطابق مواد 3و4 این قانون اجازه عبور و توقف شخص خارجی ؟ می شود در تصمیم به اخراج بیگانه تصمیم باید به بیگانه ابلاغ شود بیگانه ظرف15 روز می  تواند به اخراج خود اعتراض کند که باید به نیروی انتظامی یا وزارت کشور اعتراض خود را اعلام کند که نیروی انتظامی نیز این اعتراض را به وزارت کشور خواهد داد و وزارت کشور جلسه ای مرکب از مدیر کل وزارت کشور-نمایندگان امور خارجه –وزارت دادگستری،اطالعات نیروی انتظامی کشور مطرح و تصمیمی در این کمیسیون اتخاذ می شود و این تصمیمبه نیروی انتظامی ابلاغ می شود ناجا می تواند منتظر تصمیم کمیسیون بنا شد و در صورت ضرورت بیگانه را اخراج کند و یا مراقبت ویژه برای خارجی در نظر بگیرید و یا می تواند منتظر تصمیمی کمیسیون بماند اما ممکن است بیگانه مخفی شود تا این حکم به اجرا گذاشته نشود قانونگذار این عمل را جرم می داند و برای آن نیز مجازات در نظر می گیرند از 1 تا 3 سال حبس تعزیری  و یا جزای نقدی 500 هزار تا 3 میلیون
پناهندطگی:
بعضی افراد  به دلیل سیاسی و یا اجتماعی بعنوان پناهنده به کشوری وارد می شوئد چرا که در شرایطی هستند که احساس می کنند جان خود و خانواده خود در خطر است و از ترس جان و شکنجه می خواهد بهئکشور دیگر پناهنده شود این ک ار در صورت بروز جنگ و تغییر حکومت صورت می گیرد .امروز هر کشوری برای خود مقرراتی وضع کرده حتی کنداسیون ها و عهدنامه ها یی نیز به تصویب رسید .در ایران نیز آیین نامه پناهندگی وجود داردو به کندانسیون پناهندگی و پروتکل آن ملحق شده که مربوط به 1967 می باشد در سال 1354 این کندانسیون در مجلس ملی به تصویب رسید از طرف دیگر سازمان ملل به وضع پناهندگان رسیدگی می کند که به کندانسیون های پناهندگی نظارت می کند.در امور پناهندگی ؟ رأی عالی سازمان ملل متحد کار رسیدگی به پناهندگی را دارد شخص اگر بخواهد در ایران پناهنده شود می تواند به وزارت کشور مراجعه کند و یا در هنگام ورود همان فرد به اولین پاسگاه مرزی ابلاغ گند و این پاسگاه به وزارت کشور ارسال می کند.در وزارت کشور مدارک شخص را می بینند و با پناهندگی او موافقت می شود و ناجا برای او پروانه اقامت صادر می کند .معمولاًپناهندگان امکانات شغلی حتی زندگی نیز در اختیار می گیرند تا اینکه اگر از دست جنگ پناهنده شدذه اند جنگ تمام شود اما ممکن است پناهنده در ایران بماند و بعد ؟ تا تبعیت نیز بکند.
مهاجران
شکل ضعیف از پناهندگی می باشد یعنی مقررات پناهندگی که در مورد اینها نمی باشد اگر یک وضعیت رد کشور مثل سیل و زلزله بوده باشد اشخاص ساکن می شوند به کشور دیگر بنابراین مهاجران مقررات ویژه ندارد بلکه یک امر انسان دوستانه است اما اگر آن شرایط ؟ مثل برطرف شدن سیل و زلزله ،جنگ دولت مس تواند از آنها بخواهد که کشور را ترک کنند مثلحضور افغانی ها در ایران.
 
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Theories of revolution Definition of the most important aspects Due to Revolution: 1 - 2 of social discontent - the emergence of mobilizing groups of 3 - 4 failure forces of state repression - trying to build a new power structure elements Revolution Plyb view of the back of the past have interpreted the right balance. Hobbes comments about the Revolution: Stmgrtryn governments knew better than chaos of revolution and revolution count unjustified Karl Marx on Revolution, he first thought of by explaining the scientific revolution of the Revolution took a radical transformation in the history of that time he was a political science major issue. Revolutionary situation: a situation that jeopardizes effective monopolization of power by the government and the continued monopoly power is restored continue. From the perspective of revolutionary Leon Trotsky: A Revolutionary's historical provision in pre-revolutionary situation leads to the emergence of a new social order in which the class is supposed to establish the dominance of the country is still undeveloped, but actually most of the power have concentrated in their hands while the machine is still under the rule of the official rulers of old. Nzrfrydrysh Engels, Revolution in the political struggle for power between the two segments of the population over the country as a Define the concept of an objective historical perspective Hanytgtvn Samuel: rapid, radical and violent in the values ​​of the dominant society Vastvrh and political institutions, social structure, and leadership activities Government policies and considers According to the definition of Eugene Kamnka: Sudden major changes in social status and political power led to major changes in the government, the formal principles of sovereignty and legitimacy and conceptions of social order is. Since the revolution took a set of three: the destruction of the old regime, the new era of chaos and anarchy created Tddmrakzqdrt Vdvran Guido the Italian writer Dvrsv about the political and social revolution: a political revolution brought new groups into the ruling class are the ruling class of the social revolution alters The contemporary writer James Rvznv about social revolution: the social revolution of the fiercest political battle knows Communism

Moore Mnzvrbryngtvn What distinguishes the new revolution of political revolution: the new and the transition from traditional society to modern society was making history and political revolutions of the distinguishing Types of Barrington Moore's new revolutions: the emergence of capitalist liberal democratic revolutions that were 2 - conservative revolution from above was in fact a series of social reforms and led to the rise of fascism 3 - a new way for the communist revolutions of capital accumulation and economic development opened Revolutionary political theory includes both The main elements of the audit process:
In other words, do not constitute a ruling or no political power.
putting emphasis on the mobilization of national forces are highest. The organization of the work of preserving the fundamental relationship between leaders is mobilizing Vpyrvan.

As summarized by Professor **************************** advice *************** Revolution: The struggle for power grip, just under the old regime is Vpydaysh other state. Vertical revolution: internal revolution within the revolution of independent states called vertical. Defined national uprising (the horizontal) and its difference with the revolution (the vertical) power struggle between different Thus, the result of limiting state power colonialist or imperialist Shvddvlt cause the colony to settle. We say that if the horizontal. Definition of social revolt and its difference with the insurrections national protection of collective society of revolutionaries, there is a strong probability that the revolutionaries Jrafyay area Vamny Education should not be teaching. Definition and purpose of the Civil War: Conflict Dvsakht relatively autonomous political status Vnyrvy Jrafyay marked suppression of the potential results of analysis of territorial self-determination Vajbar be independent or self-determination is achieved.
During the revolutionary struggle of the Revolutionary ruling coalition if the group is not very likely to be radical. Social consequences, the more stable times Vsazndgy after the revolution, thus putting the reforms in the sense Byjast. Vahtmay military revolts and national differences in the positions of screenshots Revolution: The Ideology of the power of social mobilization that the future has long Vmtzmn Military rebellion: the sudden lack the power to mobilize Vaydyvlvzhy Social revolt: it involves mass mobilization but does not plan to change political institutions National Rebellion: The power to type long Vmtzmn mobilizing ideology. Defined coup: military rebellion Vakhraj sudden abrupt one-step process of the establishment of the collapse of the power of both together Vykbarh done Vtjdyd The two-stage process is more or less long interval between the time of the collapse Vtjdyd arise.
Conditions of armed revolt: Yes they are ready to use force to overthrow the government by force and other means necessary to have Political culture is the top one - believed to be widespread popular legitimacy among 2 - to be an effective political entity, 3 - has broad political participation in the public
Civil society into four categories: 1 - (democracy with a stable Western) political legitimacy and civil society has developed military intervention are not two - legitimate means of transferring power conflict Alarghm development institutions and civil society thoughts among political, military intervention of civil society is strong resistance from 3 - communities that have been under way in the development of civil society in conflict transitions is substantial resistance against the military intervention are not 4-- civil society, the public mind of military intervention have been made organizations politico at social Politics is not about no resistance Pratvryn community status: favorable conditions for the occurrence of the military uprisings that structural weakness that occurs in communities more say Pratvryn link
Weaknesses of the coup depends on several factors: 1 - 2 social rebels - a new level of community Different social rebellion to revolution: 1 - personal rebels against the social structures of the institutions do not Vnarsayyha all the problems people have but their objective is the elimination of 2 - King of the rebels with vague or abstract, such as the or no work Floors 3 - rebels seeking to restore the situation is ambiguous nature of conservatism has lost 4 - a collection of ideas is a traditional ideology of revolt against the revolutionary ideology focused on the future There are two major uprisings 1 - 2 of peasant revolts - revolts aristocratic
Reasons or causes riots National: 1 - sometimes called the Msamhh Revolution 2 - sometimes social and economic transformations Colony types 1 - The majority of people are colonized from the coloniser 2 - Colony Colony constitute a majority of the indigenous people
Fundamental similarities between the theories: 1 - the outline of the revolution are involved has come. 4 - The emergence of a revolution against the established order and the forces and factors that seek to explain the origin of these forces and for social and economic structure of intellectual community and individual perspectives Vtvqat pay.
Theories differ in terms of the methodology: the sociology of explanations or justifications phenomena and laws governing its structure and function, regardless of the subject and deals with the meanings and values ​​of the environment.'s Interpretative approach sociologist structures and institutions The text examines the social experience and human consciousness
Aristotle defined by the Revolution: 1 - unlawful violence to the peaceful transition group 2 ruling - changing the state constitution 3 - regime change in the state Foundation of Aristotle's theory of revolution and class struggle is Malykyt Aghat equality of Greece 1 - 2 of absolute equality in all areas of political rights - equal in size relative to mean that everyone will benefit Lyaqtsh

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How to Evaluate an ISI journal article?


To be able to write an essay, it is necessary to have information in this regard. If you are writing this article for the Institute for Scientific Information ISI, is probably important for you to know how this is assessed.

ISI were evaluated in approximately 2,000 new titles annually evaluated, and only 10 to 12 percent of the journals evaluated are elected. The Journal of Selection and listed in the ISI, leaving behind a series of steps.

Among the factors evaluated and database standards of ISI, the Committee elected by the journal Science, which published a variety of articles for international publication of the journal and its publication is timely.





Translated to English.

Scientific and professional judgment by a jury of well-known scientific journal articles published in the leading case in this assessment is a scientific journal that reflects the authenticity and richness.

Three bases WOS, EST and JCR reliable knowledge bases are surveyed by the Institute for Scientific Information ISI are providing and updating.

Base Essential Science Indicators) ESI (based on a 10-year period, to provide statistics in terms of indicators of science, including scientific ranking of countries based on the number of scientific production, the total number of citations and citations to scientific production deals.

The database Web of Science (WOS) to search for and extract data during different time periods based on various indicators of polls there.

Base (JCR) Journal citation Reprts Journal Citation Reports are offering deals.

Furthermore, the number of publications that are indexed in each of these bases is different.

What is the best measure of ISI index journal?

ISI Web of four major criteria in the profile of the magazine are:
1 - time of publication, it is defined as a quarterly, monthly or ... And given the time to prepare.

2 - The process of arbitration to be defined.

3 - to observe the rules of international publishing. For example, as an indication of its content.

4 - Search in any language is not important, but in some cases it should be in English, which include names of authors, titles, abstracts and keywords may be possible sources of English.

There are sub items include:

1 - Journal of International should be assigned to a specific geographic area may not.

2 - In The Journal, preferably not in the same journal, or if it is a standard of excellence than they have.

3 - People who are known to exist that are possible.

4 - They exist, for example, all the Iranians do not have a good geographical distribution.

The sub-items, plus scores and the acceptance or rejection of the ISI does not play a role.


Is a degree of ISI or not?


But how can we know whether an ISI journal, use the following link

Search ISI Thomson to infer the journal


To know whether a degree of ISI or not?

"Journal Name" site: thomsonreuters.com

For example, the

"JOURNAL OF BANKING & FINANCE" site: thomsonreuters.com

Or rather Magazine, ISSN Google Vardjstjvgr magazine are:

"ISSN: 0378-4266" site:. Thomsonreuters.com

The result is shown below

Journal Search - Science - Thomson Reuters

Science thomsonreuters.com ... Site. Client. proxystylesheet. Output. Search. allAreas ... JOURNAL OF BANKING & FINANCE. Monthly: ISSN: 0378-4266: ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV, PO BOX 211, AMSTERDAM, NETHERLANDS, 1000 AE. Coverage ...
science.thomsonreuters.com / cgi-bin / jrnlst / jlresults.cgi? ...

To search alphabetically, you can use the link below:

http://scientific.thomsonreuters.com/cgi-bin/linksj/search.cgi?letter=d


Sources:

- Scientific Information Database SID
- A. Chakly speaking doctor, former director of the Science Policy Research Center poll
-Jouma citiation Reprts
Quote from: Journal of Science & Technology in Iran / Issue 65
Source: Journal of Scientific Information Number 357...

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چگونه یک مقاله و مجله ISI ارزیابی می شود؟


برای اینکه بتوانید یک مقاله بنویسید، لازم است در این زمینه اطلاعاتی داشته باشید. اگر این مقاله را برای مؤسسه اطلاعات علمی ISI می نویسید، احتمالاً برایتان مهم است که بدانید این مقاله ها چگونه ارزیابی می شود.

ارزیابی کنندگان ISI در حدود 2000 عنوان جدید را سالانه مورد ارزیابی قرار داده و تنها 10 تا 12 درصد از مجله های علمی ارزیابی شده، انتخاب می شوند. هر مجله علمی قبل از انتخاب شدن و فهرست شدن در ISI یکسری مراحل ارزیابی را پشت سر می گذارند.

از جمله عوامل مورد ارزیابی و رعایت استانداردهای بانک اطلاعاتی ISI، کمیته علمی منتخب مجله، تنوع بین المللی مقاله های چاپ شده درآن، نشر به موقع مجله و جایگاه نشر آن می باشد.

لازم به ذکر است که هیچ یک از این عوامل به تنهایی مورد بررسی و ارزیابی قرار نمی گیرد، بلکه با بررسی مجموع عوامل، یک امتیاز کلی داده خواهد شد. 

از جمله مواردی که در ارزیابی مجله مورد توجه قرار دارد این است که عنوان مقاله ها، چکیده و کلمات کلیدی باید به زبان انگلیسی باشد همچنین توصیه می شود که منابع نیز به زبان انگلیسی نوشته شوند.

اگر چه اطلاعات علمی مهم به تمامی زبانها به چاپ می رسد، اما موارد ذکر شده باید به زبان انگلیسی باشد تا تحت داوری و ارزیابی ISI قرار گیرد زیرا ارزیابی کنندگان مجله های علمی در ISI نمی توانند عناوین ومنابع بکار رفته در مقاله ها را به زبان انگلیسی ترجمه کنند .

داوری علمی و تخصصی مقاله های چاپ شده در مجله توسط داوران نام آشنای علمی از جمله عمده ترین موارد مورد توجه ارزیابی کنندگان می باشد که گویای اعتبار و غنای علمی مجله است.

سه پایگاهWOS ،EST  و JCR از معتبرترین پایگاه های علم سنجی هستند که توسط مؤسسه اطلاعات علمی ISI تهیه و روز آمد سازی می شوند.

پایگاه Essential Science Indicators) ESI   (بر مبنای دوره های زمانی 10 ساله، به ارائه آمار در قالب شاخص های تعیین شده تولید علم از جمله رتبه علمی کشورها بر اساس تعداد تولیدات علمی، تعدا کل استنادها و نسبت استناد به تولیدات علمی می پردازد.

در پایگاه Web of Science(WOS) امکان جستجو و استخراج اطلاعات در طول دوره های زمانی مختلف بر اساس شاخص های گوناگون علم سنجی وجود دارد.

پایگاه (JCR) Journal citation Reprts به ارائه گزارش استنادی نشریه ها می پردازد.

از طرفی تعداد نشریه هایی که هر کدام از این پایگاه ها نمایه می کنند نیز با دیگری متفاوت است.

بهترین معیارهای  ISIبرای نمایه کردن مجله ها چیست؟

در سایتISI چهار مورد به عنوان ملاک های اصلی نمایه شدن مجله آمده است که عبارتند از:
1- زمان بندی نشر، تعریف شده باشد یعنی معلوم باشد که فصلنامه است، ماهنامه است یا... و در موعد معین هم آماده شود.

2- فرآیند داوری برای مجله تعریف شده باشد.

3- قواعد نشر بین المللی را رعایت کند. برای مثال، عنوان مجله گویای محتوای آن باشد.

4- مقاله به هر زبانی که باشد مهم نیست ولی چند مورد در آن باید به زبان انگلیسی باشد که عبارتند از: اسامی نویسندگان، عنوان، چکیده و کلمات کلیدی و حتی الامکان منابع و مآخذ هم انگلیسی باشد.

موارد فرعی هم وجود دارد که شامل این موارد است:

1- مجله باید حوزه بین المللی داشته باشد و به یک حوزه جغرافیایی خاص تعلق نداشته باشد.

2- در حوزه آن مجله، ترجیحاً مجله مشابه نباشد یا اگر هست آن مجله معیار برتری نسبت به آنها داشته باشد.

3- افراد به وجود آورنده آن حتی الامکان افراد شناخته شده ای باشند.

4- افراد به وجود آورنده، توزیع جغرافیایی مناسبی داشته باشند مثلاً همه ایرانی نباشند.

البته موارد فرعی، نمره اضافه دارد و در قبولی یا رد مجله از طرفISI نقش بازی نمی کند.


آیا مجله ای درجه ISI دارد یا نه؟


اما برای اینکه بفهمیم یک مجله ISI هست یا نه می توان از لینک زیر استفاده کرد

جستجو در سایت تامسون برای پی بردن به  ISI بودن یک مجله


برای اینکه بدانیم آیا یک مجله درجۀ ISI دارد یا نه؟ (توجه: جستجوی خود سایت تامسون رویترز زیاد دقیق نیست و گاهی وقت ها نام نشریات را نمی آورد) کافی است که نام نشریه را به این شکل در Google وارد کنیم:

“Journal Name” site: thomsonreuters.com

برای مثال

“JOURNAL OF BANKING & FINANCE” site: thomsonreuters.com

یا اینکه به جای نام مجله، ISSN مجله را واردجستجوگر Google می کنیم:

“ISSN: 0378-4266” site: .thomsonreuters.com

که نتیجه جستجو در زیر مشاهده می شود

Journal Search - Science - Thomson Reuters

Science thomsonreuters.com ... Site. Client. proxystylesheet. Output. Search. allAreas ... JOURNAL OF BANKING & FINANCE. Monthly: ISSN: 0378-4266: ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV, PO BOX 211, AMSTERDAM, NETHERLANDS, 1000 AE. Coverage ...
science.thomsonreuters.com/cgi-bin/jrnlst/jlresults.cgi?...

برای جستجوی الفبایی نیز از لینک زیر استفاده نمایید:

http://scientific.thomsonreuters.com/cgi-bin/linksj/search.cgi?letter=d



منابع:

-پایگاه اطلاعات علمی SID
-سخنرانی دکتر عباس چاکلی، مدیر سابق گروه علم سنجی مرکز تحقیقات سیاست علمی کشور
-Jouma citiation Reprts
به نقل از: نشریه دانشگاه علم و صنعت ایران/شماره65
منبع: نشریه اطلاعات علمی شماره357
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The modern concept of sovereignty and national security.


National security is a complex concept in itself. To illustrate the complexity of the concept of national security experts, have presented several reasons: First, the concept of security, and non-ambiguous definition of the difference between secure and insecure situations is difficult. When a community is safe and when it is unsafe? The uncertainty factor is the same in different countries? Or a threat to the general conditions prevailing in any society, no longer will a color overlay? In response to numerous questions from the default value, cultural and political differences. The complexity and ambiguity of this concept is when it belongs to the "national" and "national security" will be used. The concept of national security, what security is and what it is about? Objective indicators of "national" nature of security concerns within a community and the national unit is? When speaking of threats, intimidation, what is the purpose?

The second reason is the complexity and ambiguity of the concept of security, it is subjective. Experts unanimously agree that national security rather than external, objective reality, the subjective nature of discourse, and it is intersubjective. Subjective sense of security due to several factors that include:

1. Elite perceptions and perceptions of security, type of threat, national interests and security environment;

Two. Vague notion of insiders and outsiders, the perception of safety;

Three. Degree of credibility and urgency and priority and centrality of values ​​and interests are threatened;

4. Contact the elite of a country can be an agent or agents make threats.

The traditional concept of security and its development

1. It seems that the concept of security has always been evolving, but can be found in two historical turning point in the evolution of a concept. Historically, the emergence of national Vahdahay can be the first milestone in the evolution of the concept of security. After the Treaty of Westphalia and the French Revolution, the rise of the first units to maintain a single national state became the main target. Whereas before the advent of national units, which always involves the extension of the authority seeking the preservation and expansion of the Empire, which was the main objective of the creation of national units has changed the face of security, national security (in the sense of preserving national) to replace be it.

This evolved historically, was a major change but not the essence of the security may change, but the scope of its definition, and it transformed the traditional kings of security, national security has expanded. However, the logic of security was based on the expansion of military ambition remained.between the rulers and the subjects were ego.

However, the essence of the ancient concept of security, the military aspects of security, the preservation of traditional ways, the warfare and expansionism, the fact remains that traditional power base.



In general, the traditional concept of security has two aspects that are very basic and some minor aspect of it is the central aspect. According to the traditional concept of national security, all of a country or the national security threats that may be endangered, is exogenous and military in nature. Overcome this mindset and perception of the elite, the military and political situation in particular is at the same time, the harvest of your circumstances will rise. In other words, the definition of national security should be based on the decisions of political elite, will rise to certain thoughts and decisions. The conditions governing the emergence and dominance of the traditional (military nature of external threats), security is crucial. Regardless of the situation, to understand the evolution of the concept of national security is difficult.

Unlike traditional security concept, the new concept, the main aspect to be dealt with, the internal dimensions of security and civilian attitudes (more economical) to be safe. In the coming years, their roles become more prominent international role of the military and will be less.



One of the main reasons for the development of the national security concept, based on the evolution of national power.. Some experts believe that the neglect of the Soviet Union's development of critical, uncompromising emphasis on past trends (military - an external threat) and the neglect of domestic economic factors, the main cause of its collapse. Hence it is very important to understand the concept of evolution.

After the addition of two new elements of the new concept of security, which is generally known as a stable security is emphasized. Security, environmental sustainability, including respect for the rights and freedoms of the individual and psychological security. The new concept of security, governance, and public safety are both coin and strategies have to be comprehensive enough to ensure the long term security of both components.

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The concept and nature of national security



 
The concept of national security has multiple dimensions. So it has different definitions.will be in external affairs.



There are two approaches to national security.
A) traditional approach, b) new approach
 
Effective use is for interfacing external military threats.
 


In this view, a sense of security hardware, firstly, the importance and priority than external threats, internal threats see. Secondly, the international system on the standpoint of national security has more power than the internal environment.
Third, this approach reduces the view-oriented and holistic security is defined within national boundaries.


The appearance of the atomic bomb, and ... The concept of national security, and it basically modifies the software aspects to be investigated. Thus the addition of endangering national security threat, use and control of military forces, including prioritizing the environmental, economic, political and cultural aspects of some of these threats, only Unlike in the past, they are formed and ambiguous nature, but in Conditions of interdependence and close relationship with each other growing countries, and the global nature of the threat they are. Thus, according to this approach, firstly lose their priority and importance of military threats, secondly, the effect of the internal environment of the international environment is at least equivalent to, if not more.



Since the Cold War ended, the changes can be observed in government security models and the impact of globalization, the emphasis on military security of the state, the \ "International Security \" is shifting. In this context, the meaning of internationalization, globalization and multilateralism is.
Consequently, a reduction in individual attitudes of national security.


, are listed.


National Security Strategy of the highest level of focus and gives a sense of the whole. This strategy attempts to ensure that the actions of numerous countries abroad, and has served as a member of a collective initiative of shape.
Power tools that have the resources to perform these functions and related activities that are available.


Developing an effective national security strategy requires the integration of multiple functions and tools in order to achieve the objectives pursued, as well. This combination, one strategy is the responsibility of continuous assessment. The evaluation of one state to the next state, which repeats itself in various ways.
National security strategy is just as important, it will be too cumbersome, and requires high-level thinking is visionary and a futurist.


A National Security Strategy jerry only through a series of sub-strategies in the hope of achieving integration, could not be prepared. Evaluating the National Security Strategy of the world situation and the objectives of the political systems in the world, begins. The assessment involves estimating the functional activity of pursuing these goals is the key to each of these activities are implemented by a set of tools. Such an estimate leads to a range of national security strategies in order to identify the best option, using evaluation techniques are comparable. Finally, the practice of taking decisions on national security strategy, macro-scale political judgment is also required. Any contract or agreement with a strategic assessment of what mathematics can not be expected to prove that one strategy is better than another. However, the strategic assessment may be more accurate generalization, suggestions and estimates that form alternative strategies, it is hoped. Therefore, it strategic evaluation can help to ensure that alternative strategies in terms of internal coherence - and the differences between them, including their alternatives - the possible options being correct, are clearly explained. The assessment tools and activities to achieve the goals of how the world works together to act in order to estimate the national security strategy, is key.
, to be fitted.


and the wisdom to use the tools and resources in order to meet the challenges and opportunities of globalization, the situation would be appropriate
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The set of strategies can be classified into two categories of structural factors and system factors

Structural factors include elements that are defined in the international and domestic environment, strategy and defense policies as they affect government policy.

Nasrvaml structure:

1 - The external environment:

- Drghalb Vastratzhyhay the policies and actions of other states or countries to respond to the objectives of regional and global trends changing conditions in the international system. Goals and actions of other states could be threatened or Amtyaztlqy and thus the type of political orientation - an effective strategic

- The structure of power in the international system can influence the policies and practices of the constituent units of the restriction. Topics of international Manvrbazygran way the limit.

In order to maintain the balance of power based Brasl struggle to survive - people diplomacy based primarily Brqdrt the threat of war is ultimately political union - the main feature of this system is the military.



Ways to create a balance of power: 1 - split between enemies or rivals fall

2 - forming military alliances - political (the common interests of the Union

be strong to be joined to each of the parties be determined.

However, if the system does not allow state power should be increased so that the total disruption of the balance of world domination will lead Vmvjb.

4 - Preventive War:

5 - NAM strategy: the system has become inflexible bipolar international system can only adopt this strategy is the strategy of disengagement.

 

6 - If the bipolar international system to be flexible to become the only strategic alliance strategy is adopted in this system.



8 - value rewards strategy: the distribution of power in the international system is unipolar or hierarchical

+ نوشته شده توسط عليرضا زينالي اقدم در و ساعت |

History of International Relations
The roots of World War 1 - The economic factor 2 - Problems within 3 - 4 external problems - International Problems

Economic factors: mechanism of classical Marxist view of capitalist economy based on competition between European powers Defy Vrsydn And so a complete monopoly of all the events from China to Morocco.It is not too far-fetched

Domestic problems: many countries have the means to cover up its internal Brmshklat. Vmjarstan Vatrysh were considered typical of Russia. Russia, the defeat of Japan and the social revolution of 1905 and the defeat of Austria Vazdst to Bosnia's regime could not justify the lost restore the Vdchar humiliation was nationalized - Austria Vmjarstan different ethnic uprising Qlythay nation had Vjvdartsh weak, impotent leaders of the Dragon War that took refuge in the lap of Vtmh were

External problems: Austria Vjarstan national problems that they felt from the outside (Serbia) Nutrition is fought to pour Legend of the Great Serbia - France, Germany, the main cause of failure and take Dsdd States entered the war Alzars Vlrn

On the one hand, the crisis of the early twentieth century Vtvaly enemy until the war continued development of EU relations with the countries of relation constraints prevented war was Azkntrl

Peace treaties Versailles: the participation of 27 countries from 12 January to 28 June 1919 the increased Srkt all countries was not possible in a 12 January conference of the ten countries were evaluated in 52 commission on various subjects consisted finally of March, after the final decision of the Council of 10 divided by four were heads of major powers (Prime Minister of France, Prime Minister of England, the American president Vnkhst Minister of Italy was adopted representative Zhaptn issues in the Far East for Consultation placed at 28 June 1919 peace treaty with 440 female House Versailles Amza’rsyd elements, all colonies lost his army

Peace treaties with allies in Germany after World War 1 - The Treaty of Saint-Germain - new Treaty - Treaty Tryann - Convention sur Vtjzyh Ottoman

Works on the political life of Europe 1 - change the political map of Europe 2 - 3 changes of political regimes - political and social problems 4 - The overall weakness in Europe

Important international issues in 1920: 1 - The effect of the U.S. policy of isolationism on European Rvat 2 - The Elements Vakhtlaf England and France 3 - The Soviet

U.S. policy of isolationism on European Rvat: Wilson believed that America deserves a great power play with Nash iodine compound to guarantee peace in the world during the last 14 Drchhrchvb declaration of war in favor of the Republicans Vzng Brdmkratha risk of cholera, according to Senate Majority Aza’mjls Republicans why Congress later years of the war, approves treaties of Versailles refused to immediately vote Republican for 12 years with the slogan (the first U.S. return to the normal) power to be gained by increasing production and consumption of Bdysystmdaran Amykay was and the side of America policy of isolationism in international affairs at the United Nations came out with Vazzvyt Grtnd Amza’qrar the new element Y to be out of the country - the Soviet Union did not recognize. diplomacy dollar decisive role in the issues raised in Europe

The Soviet Union: Identification Russia from Western Europe was the 1917 revolution Aktrvsyh Europe from Dvnzr foreign and domestic threats made. Than outside the neighborhood together Mzshvry like Poland, the Baltic states Nland Vrvmany the newly independent who was the domestic Russian revolution, the nature of the ideological their attitude toward the world was considered transnational capitalist forces would be targeted - the social circumstances (war, poverty, inflation Vbykary) communist propaganda was convenient and economical. workers in Europe to Moscow was staring eyes that were not working masses against their rivals showed no were ashamed of the workers of the Russian Eye International Championship worker hegemony Bvrha have rejected viewed the old left his credit Drmabl new wave of revolution lost Lenin in 1919 International Svmra founded in 1920 the Socialist Party congresses tour, we decided to establish theIt was the complete bankruptcy of the Soviet, Lenin declared individually with them the blind is closed due to the bad economy Vpyman direction finding new markets treaty with Russia

The economic crisis of the First World War Vasar scarf 1926 to 1945: a few days after the death of one of the foundations of peace Ashtrzmn Europe Thursday, 24 October stock market on Wall Street (New York) and one collapsed world economy crisis began four years

  
1 The effects of these crises - domestic policy 2 - Prevalence Tvtalytasym 3 - Asarbhran Brrvabt International - Domestic policy: This works in the context of government intervention in economic and social crises of the Web is a summary of your credit Drazhan Democracy Series freedom of economic action (Soviet Krybangyr why not) in a manner contrary to the Ybn above procedure was necessary to eliminate all government intervention in the economy, the effect of the price control policy, aimed manifested Vatkhaz U.S. Ayjadkar national institutions with the devaluation of the dollar acts state regulation of banks and agricultural and industrial jobs Americans organized the British policy of free trade in terms of 80-year abandoned a guidance adopted by strengthening its relationship with the Commonwealth Vdvry neighboring countries European and east far behind catching hues such Bhranhay to your country may prevent

Prevalence of totalitarianism: the discrediting of democracy Drnzd public opinion and increase the credibility of the totalitarian regimes in some countries it was found that the half life of Aztvtalyt to use the same method to Tvtalytalysm has embarked on a vaccination (interference) Azshyv strong Tvtalysm prevented countriesthe blue side of the organizations on the state government was not another example totalitarianism during the 1930 outbreak fascist government style Mussolini Vhytlr the spirit Rzmjvyy patriotism as well as passion Vshvq Vghlbh emotions indeed have leadership type Karzmatyk the common characteristics of these groups (wreath) in Italy Fashsym reminiscent of the grandeur of ancient Rome Vdralman idea Zhrmnysm Pan racial anti-Semitism Racism lines of thought Nazism and communism or fascism nevertheless constituted American sociologist difference Tiran Tiran centuries past century, governments Bystmvadamh know of any case in the 1930s regimes Dyktatvraz Pagrft fascists across Europe

Effects of the crisis War international relations from 1926 to 1945 reduced the international exchange loss of international cooperation and the occupied countries Vtqsym country into two camps rich Vfqyr the first one - the Sgyn economic crisis because of their tendency to Avtarsy (autonomy) efforts for economic independence was thewere forcibly turned back

Initialize invasion preparations of World War II Hitler: Hitler's aggression Brdamnh its military power during the Spanish Civil War, he said, was united to bless wars have Vaspanya Abyssinia (Mvsvlyvny) United States, European countries lost their problems Grbyan away from crisis There are

1 - accomplish Anshlvs 2 - Munich Vtjzyh Chkslvvaky 3 - Initialize the invasion of Poland in World War II

- Realization Anshlvs: Hitler's annexation of Austria intends to release the contents Laahsas outcomes German soil, he summoned the Austrian Chancellor warned the Austrian Nazi prisoners released Vvsays Aynkvart National Svsalysthay of the Austrian Interior Ministry has therefore appointed president of Austria Vaynkvart he resigned the presidency of Austria became the German forces under turbulent situation in Austria took the day March 13, 1938 the Union adopted Vatrysh two countries were annexed to Germany 2

That part of Germany became teachers named Conrad Hnln German profits called party Avbpyvndnd after the House of Representatives calling for autonomy whole profits will Vkhvsth Haas Party at 8 material to the government as the elements of the military activity on the border of Czechoslovakia took overby Poland, Hungary and Slovakia declared independence Vtsrf southern Slovakia by German support was minister of Czechoslovakia into the German army entering Vayalat German protectorate of Bohemia Vmravy to come Vchkslvaky was removed from the map

was the first day in September 1939 when Germany invaded Poland, France Rvzsvm Britain declared war on Germany until the war began in August 1945 continued

 

New cold war Vfrvpashy Soviet Union from 1979 to 1990 the Soviets entered the country began in 1985, when Gorbachev was succeeded by continued major military during missile European Arvmysyl Initiative Strategic Defense and Star Wars were the campaigns apparent Vpnhan between the primary actors in international relations We must not forget 1 - Roots of the Cold War novel: 1 - The struggle for influence in the Third World Vkshmksh the areas of military encounters between the two superpowers directly on each other giving

Conflicts over the spread of influence in the Third World: the Arab-Israel known as the Yom Kippur 1973 was a Soviet advance in the Middle East since the end of the 1960s had begun chance encounter with the Americans increased the Drlyy Iraq, Syria Egypt chances to increase these countriesThe Dvqdrt indirectly, shame on both the political influence Brkshvrhay world after the defeat of the U.S. in the war Vytnamdrbyanat Brzhyf the 25th Congress of the Communist Party of Soviet Mtblvrshd doctrine Brzhyf called the Soviet policy in the Third World arms race was concealed Finally, in 1979, it became apparent

Competition weapon: The Soviet 1973 missiles few Klahk·h successfully tested Vlhzh of equipment and development of open Naaystad with successful experiments missiles SS 1 - Voss S. 20 with spot-on accuracy to the more substantial Mnazrh in Europe would disagreeConstruction of modern Russian and American neutron bomb ...mx issued Voros of missiles SS-20 Vbmb missions back-fire equipped themselves Vmsabqh Tslhaty more intense was Vpyman Salt 2 also did not materialize against U.S. missiles Pershing 2 in Europe proposed and adopted Ned and religion like the other end of the world All elected Reagan confronted with serious symptoms of the United States against the Soviet Union

Important during the Cold War, the new one - the missiles European Arvmysyl anti-war Starga it in both the United States to negotiate the block did not influence the failure of negotiations November 30, 1980 in Geneva regarding the removal of missiles the Russians reduction they believed led missile Americans win 1800 km Vmvshk·hay Krvazyr range 2500 Klyvmtrdr Europe to be based Voros stimulation of young people trying to cope with deployment in European countries Grddama failed missiles deployed Vtvaznaz lost between NATO Vvrshv was stationed in America to the same content no recommendations build ballistic missiles (destroy missiles The laser beam) by Reagan was to America to challenge the dominance of the Soviet Union in 1986, reached into his economic and political reforms for the new detente began Vdvrh

Soviet Vpyamdhay that: The single, Rise of the Grbajf found that the modernization program, Soviet barrier faced resistance party apparatus Web sensory social 70 years in Soviet society r ^ ar ^ was the submit Rvbazsazy economy called Prvstrvka the Bathvlat policy called glasnost and At the same time, the Soviet Union and the countries of the world to America, Japan and the countries of the European single market Svvm with impenetrable fortress to be faced such a situation in 1993, providing a common European or Europe from the Urals to the Atlantic Gvrbajf House plans to take up the philosophy of Natura eliminateTo ensure the confidence necessary aspirations countries, Natura of space exploitation will throw America agreed the split was both common market with Chlsh new face on November 30, 1990 Dvalman United simultaneously with the release of all of Eastern Europe in the beginning of the Warsaw Pact was abandoned Russia White Ukraine, the Baltic countries and the countries of Central Asia, the Caucasus, the Soviet Union declared independence Vmavra Juniper will leave Marxism Vpzyray Vlyral democratic regime from power was reduced to a regional power

+ نوشته شده توسط عليرضا زينالي اقدم در و ساعت |

History of International Relations
The roots of World War 1 - The economic factor 2 - Problems within 3 - 4 external problems - International Problems

Economic factors: mechanism of classical Marxist view of capitalist economy based on competition between European powers Defy Vrsydn And so a complete monopoly of all the events from China to Morocco.It is not too far-fetched

Domestic problems: many countries have the means to cover up its internal Brmshklat. Vmjarstan Vatrysh were considered typical of Russia. Russia, the defeat of Japan and the social revolution of 1905 and the defeat of Austria Vazdst to Bosnia's regime could not justify the lost restore the Vdchar humiliation was nationalized - Austria Vmjarstan different ethnic uprising Qlythay nation had Vjvdartsh weak, impotent leaders of the Dragon War that took refuge in the lap of Vtmh were

External problems: Austria Vjarstan national problems that they felt from the outside (Serbia) Nutrition is fought to pour Legend of the Great Serbia - France, Germany, the main cause of failure and take Dsdd States entered the war Alzars Vlrn

On the one hand, the crisis of the early twentieth century Vtvaly enemy until the war continued development of EU relations with the countries of relation constraints prevented war was Azkntrl

Peace treaties Versailles: the participation of 27 countries from 12 January to 28 June 1919 the increased Srkt all countries was not possible in a 12 January conference of the ten countries were evaluated in 52 commission on various subjects consisted finally of March, after the final decision of the Council of 10 divided by four were heads of major powers (Prime Minister of France, Prime Minister of England, the American president Vnkhst Minister of Italy was adopted representative Zhaptn issues in the Far East for Consultation placed at 28 June 1919 peace treaty with 440 female House Versailles Amza’rsyd elements, all colonies lost his army

Peace treaties with allies in Germany after World War 1 - The Treaty of Saint-Germain - new Treaty - Treaty Tryann - Convention sur Vtjzyh Ottoman

Works on the political life of Europe 1 - change the political map of Europe 2 - 3 changes of political regimes - political and social problems 4 - The overall weakness in Europe

Important international issues in 1920: 1 - The effect of the U.S. policy of isolationism on European Rvat 2 - The Elements Vakhtlaf England and France 3 - The Soviet

U.S. policy of isolationism on European Rvat: Wilson believed that America deserves a great power play with Nash iodine compound to guarantee peace in the world during the last 14 Drchhrchvb declaration of war in favor of the Republicans Vzng Brdmkratha risk of cholera, according to Senate Majority Aza’mjls Republicans why Congress later years of the war, approves treaties of Versailles refused to immediately vote Republican for 12 years with the slogan (the first U.S. return to the normal) power to be gained by increasing production and consumption of Bdysystmdaran Amykay was and the side of America policy of isolationism in international affairs at the United Nations came out with Vazzvyt Grtnd Amza’qrar the new element Y to be out of the country - the Soviet Union did not recognize. diplomacy dollar decisive role in the issues raised in Europe

The Soviet Union: Identification Russia from Western Europe was the 1917 revolution Aktrvsyh Europe from Dvnzr foreign and domestic threats made. Than outside the neighborhood together Mzshvry like Poland, the Baltic states Nland Vrvmany the newly independent who was the domestic Russian revolution, the nature of the ideological their attitude toward the world was considered transnational capitalist forces would be targeted - the social circumstances (war, poverty, inflation Vbykary) communist propaganda was convenient and economical. workers in Europe to Moscow was staring eyes that were not working masses against their rivals showed no were ashamed of the workers of the Russian Eye International Championship worker hegemony Bvrha have rejected viewed the old left his credit Drmabl new wave of revolution lost Lenin in 1919 International Svmra founded in 1920 the Socialist Party congresses tour, we decided to establish theIt was the complete bankruptcy of the Soviet, Lenin declared individually with them the blind is closed due to the bad economy Vpyman direction finding new markets treaty with Russia

The economic crisis of the First World War Vasar scarf 1926 to 1945: a few days after the death of one of the foundations of peace Ashtrzmn Europe Thursday, 24 October stock market on Wall Street (New York) and one collapsed world economy crisis began four years

  
1 The effects of these crises - domestic policy 2 - Prevalence Tvtalytasym 3 - Asarbhran Brrvabt International - Domestic policy: This works in the context of government intervention in economic and social crises of the Web is a summary of your credit Drazhan Democracy Series freedom of economic action (Soviet Krybangyr why not) in a manner contrary to the Ybn above procedure was necessary to eliminate all government intervention in the economy, the effect of the price control policy, aimed manifested Vatkhaz U.S. Ayjadkar national institutions with the devaluation of the dollar acts state regulation of banks and agricultural and industrial jobs Americans organized the British policy of free trade in terms of 80-year abandoned a guidance adopted by strengthening its relationship with the Commonwealth Vdvry neighboring countries European and east far behind catching hues such Bhranhay to your country may prevent

Prevalence of totalitarianism: the discrediting of democracy Drnzd public opinion and increase the credibility of the totalitarian regimes in some countries it was found that the half life of Aztvtalyt to use the same method to Tvtalytalysm has embarked on a vaccination (interference) Azshyv strong Tvtalysm prevented countriesthe blue side of the organizations on the state government was not another example totalitarianism during the 1930 outbreak fascist government style Mussolini Vhytlr the spirit Rzmjvyy patriotism as well as passion Vshvq Vghlbh emotions indeed have leadership type Karzmatyk the common characteristics of these groups (wreath) in Italy Fashsym reminiscent of the grandeur of ancient Rome Vdralman idea Zhrmnysm Pan racial anti-Semitism Racism lines of thought Nazism and communism or fascism nevertheless constituted American sociologist difference Tiran Tiran centuries past century, governments Bystmvadamh know of any case in the 1930s regimes Dyktatvraz Pagrft fascists across Europe

Effects of the crisis War international relations from 1926 to 1945 reduced the international exchange loss of international cooperation and the occupied countries Vtqsym country into two camps rich Vfqyr the first one - the Sgyn economic crisis because of their tendency to Avtarsy (autonomy) efforts for economic independence was thewere forcibly turned back

Initialize invasion preparations of World War II Hitler: Hitler's aggression Brdamnh its military power during the Spanish Civil War, he said, was united to bless wars have Vaspanya Abyssinia (Mvsvlyvny) United States, European countries lost their problems Grbyan away from crisis There are

1 - accomplish Anshlvs 2 - Munich Vtjzyh Chkslvvaky 3 - Initialize the invasion of Poland in World War II

- Realization Anshlvs: Hitler's annexation of Austria intends to release the contents Laahsas outcomes German soil, he summoned the Austrian Chancellor warned the Austrian Nazi prisoners released Vvsays Aynkvart National Svsalysthay of the Austrian Interior Ministry has therefore appointed president of Austria Vaynkvart he resigned the presidency of Austria became the German forces under turbulent situation in Austria took the day March 13, 1938 the Union adopted Vatrysh two countries were annexed to Germany 2

That part of Germany became teachers named Conrad Hnln German profits called party Avbpyvndnd after the House of Representatives calling for autonomy whole profits will Vkhvsth Haas Party at 8 material to the government as the elements of the military activity on the border of Czechoslovakia took overby Poland, Hungary and Slovakia declared independence Vtsrf southern Slovakia by German support was minister of Czechoslovakia into the German army entering Vayalat German protectorate of Bohemia Vmravy to come Vchkslvaky was removed from the map

was the first day in September 1939 when Germany invaded Poland, France Rvzsvm Britain declared war on Germany until the war began in August 1945 continued

 

New cold war Vfrvpashy Soviet Union from 1979 to 1990 the Soviets entered the country began in 1985, when Gorbachev was succeeded by continued major military during missile European Arvmysyl Initiative Strategic Defense and Star Wars were the campaigns apparent Vpnhan between the primary actors in international relations We must not forget 1 - Roots of the Cold War novel: 1 - The struggle for influence in the Third World Vkshmksh the areas of military encounters between the two superpowers directly on each other giving

Conflicts over the spread of influence in the Third World: the Arab-Israel known as the Yom Kippur 1973 was a Soviet advance in the Middle East since the end of the 1960s had begun chance encounter with the Americans increased the Drlyy Iraq, Syria Egypt chances to increase these countriesThe Dvqdrt indirectly, shame on both the political influence Brkshvrhay world after the defeat of the U.S. in the war Vytnamdrbyanat Brzhyf the 25th Congress of the Communist Party of Soviet Mtblvrshd doctrine Brzhyf called the Soviet policy in the Third World arms race was concealed Finally, in 1979, it became apparent

Competition weapon: The Soviet 1973 missiles few Klahk·h successfully tested Vlhzh of equipment and development of open Naaystad with successful experiments missiles SS 1 - Voss S. 20 with spot-on accuracy to the more substantial Mnazrh in Europe would disagreeConstruction of modern Russian and American neutron bomb ...mx issued Voros of missiles SS-20 Vbmb missions back-fire equipped themselves Vmsabqh Tslhaty more intense was Vpyman Salt 2 also did not materialize against U.S. missiles Pershing 2 in Europe proposed and adopted Ned and religion like the other end of the world All elected Reagan confronted with serious symptoms of the United States against the Soviet Union

Important during the Cold War, the new one - the missiles European Arvmysyl anti-war Starga it in both the United States to negotiate the block did not influence the failure of negotiations November 30, 1980 in Geneva regarding the removal of missiles the Russians reduction they believed led missile Americans win 1800 km Vmvshk·hay Krvazyr range 2500 Klyvmtrdr Europe to be based Voros stimulation of young people trying to cope with deployment in European countries Grddama failed missiles deployed Vtvaznaz lost between NATO Vvrshv was stationed in America to the same content no recommendations build ballistic missiles (destroy missiles The laser beam) by Reagan was to America to challenge the dominance of the Soviet Union in 1986, reached into his economic and political reforms for the new detente began Vdvrh

Soviet Vpyamdhay that: The single, Rise of the Grbajf found that the modernization program, Soviet barrier faced resistance party apparatus Web sensory social 70 years in Soviet society r ^ ar ^ was the submit Rvbazsazy economy called Prvstrvka the Bathvlat policy called glasnost and At the same time, the Soviet Union and the countries of the world to America, Japan and the countries of the European single market Svvm with impenetrable fortress to be faced such a situation in 1993, providing a common European or Europe from the Urals to the Atlantic Gvrbajf House plans to take up the philosophy of Natura eliminateTo ensure the confidence necessary aspirations countries, Natura of space exploitation will throw America agreed the split was both common market with Chlsh new face on November 30, 1990 Dvalman United simultaneously with the release of all of Eastern Europe in the beginning of the Warsaw Pact was abandoned Russia White Ukraine, the Baltic countries and the countries of Central Asia, the Caucasus, the Soviet Union declared independence Vmavra Juniper will leave Marxism Vpzyray Vlyral democratic regime from power was reduced to a regional power

+ نوشته شده توسط عليرضا زينالي اقدم در و ساعت |

Theories of revolution




Definition of the most important aspects?

Due to Revolution: 1 - 2 of social discontent - the emergence of mobilizing groups of 3 - 4 failure forces of state repression - trying to build a new power structure elements Revolution

Plyb view of the back of the past have interpreted the right balance.

Hobbes comments about the Revolution: Stmgrtryn governments knew better than chaos of revolution and revolution count unjustified

Karl Marx on Revolution, he first thought of by explaining the scientific revolution of the Revolution took a radical transformation in the history of that time he was a political science major issue.

Revolutionary situation: a situation that jeopardizes effective monopolization of power by the government and the continued monopoly power is restored continue.

have concentrated in their hands while the machine is still under the rule of the official rulers of old.

Nzrfrydrysh Engels, Revolution in the political struggle for power between the two segments of the population over the country as a

Define the concept of an objective historical perspective Hanytgtvn Samuel: rapid, radical and violent in the values ​​of the dominant society Vastvrh and political institutions, social structure, and leadership activities

Government policies and considers



Since the revolution took a set of three: the destruction of the old regime, the new era of chaos and anarchy created Tddmrakzqdrt Vdvran



The contemporary writer James Rvznv about social revolution: the social revolution of the fiercest political battle knows

Communism



 

Moore Mnzvrbryngtvn What distinguishes the new revolution of political revolution: the new and the transition from traditional society to modern society was making history and political revolutions of the distinguishing

Types of Barrington Moore's new revolutions: the emergence of capitalist liberal democratic revolutions that were 2 - conservative revolution from above was in fact a series of social reforms and led to the rise of fascism 3 - a new way for the communist revolutions of capital accumulation and economic development opened

Revolutionary political theory includes both

The main elements of the audit process:



In other words, do not constitute a ruling or no political power.



putting emphasis on the mobilization of national forces are highest.

The organization of the work of preserving the fundamental relationship between leaders is mobilizing Vpyrvan.





As summarized by Professor **************************** advice ***************

Revolution: The struggle for power grip, just under the old regime is Vpydaysh other state.

Vertical revolution: internal revolution within the revolution of independent states called vertical.

Defined national uprising (the horizontal) and its difference with the revolution (the vertical) power struggle between different Thus, the result of limiting state power colonialist or imperialist Shvddvlt cause the colony to settle. We say that if the horizontal.

Definition of social revolt and its difference with the insurrections national protection of collective society of revolutionaries, there is a strong probability that the revolutionaries Jrafyay area Vamny Education should not be teaching.

Definition and purpose of the Civil War: Conflict Dvsakht relatively autonomous political status Vnyrvy Jrafyay marked suppression of the potential results of analysis of territorial self-determination Vajbar be independent or self-determination is achieved.

 

During the revolutionary struggle of the Revolutionary ruling coalition if the group is not very likely to be radical.

Social consequences, the more stable times Vsazndgy after the revolution, thus putting the reforms in the sense Byjast.

Vahtmay military revolts and national differences in the positions of screenshots

Revolution: The Ideology of the power of social mobilization that the future has long Vmtzmn

Military rebellion: the sudden lack the power to mobilize Vaydyvlvzhy

Social revolt: it involves mass mobilization but does not plan to change political institutions

National Rebellion: The power to type long Vmtzmn mobilizing ideology.

Defined coup: military rebellion Vakhraj sudden abrupt one-step process of the establishment of the collapse of the power of both together Vykbarh done Vtjdyd

The two-stage process is more or less long interval between the time of the collapse Vtjdyd arise.

 

Conditions of armed revolt: Yes they are ready to use force to overthrow the government by force and other means necessary to have

Political culture is the top one - believed to be widespread popular legitimacy among 2 - to be an effective political entity, 3 - has broad political participation in the public

 

Civil society into four categories: 1 - (democracy with a stable Western) political legitimacy and civil society has developed military intervention are not two - legitimate means of transferring power conflict Alarghm development institutions and civil society thoughts among political, military intervention of

Politics is not about no resistance

Pratvryn community status: favorable conditions for the occurrence of the military uprisings that structural weakness that occurs in communities more say Pratvryn link

+ نوشته شده توسط عليرضا زينالي اقدم در و ساعت |

Theories of revolution




Definition of the most important aspects?

Due to Revolution: 1 - 2 of social discontent - the emergence of mobilizing groups of 3 - 4 failure forces of state repression - trying to build a new power structure elements Revolution

Plyb view of the back of the past have interpreted the right balance.

Hobbes comments about the Revolution: Stmgrtryn governments knew better than chaos of revolution and revolution count unjustified

Karl Marx on Revolution, he first thought of by explaining the scientific revolution of the Revolution took a radical transformation in the history of that time he was a political science major issue.

Revolutionary situation: a situation that jeopardizes effective monopolization of power by the government and the continued monopoly power is restored continue.

have concentrated in their hands while the machine is still under the rule of the official rulers of old.

Nzrfrydrysh Engels, Revolution in the political struggle for power between the two segments of the population over the country as a

Define the concept of an objective historical perspective Hanytgtvn Samuel: rapid, radical and violent in the values ​​of the dominant society Vastvrh and political institutions, social structure, and leadership activities

Government policies and considers



Since the revolution took a set of three: the destruction of the old regime, the new era of chaos and anarchy created Tddmrakzqdrt Vdvran



The contemporary writer James Rvznv about social revolution: the social revolution of the fiercest political battle knows

Communism



 

Moore Mnzvrbryngtvn What distinguishes the new revolution of political revolution: the new and the transition from traditional society to modern society was making history and political revolutions of the distinguishing

Types of Barrington Moore's new revolutions: the emergence of capitalist liberal democratic revolutions that were 2 - conservative revolution from above was in fact a series of social reforms and led to the rise of fascism 3 - a new way for the communist revolutions of capital accumulation and economic development opened

Revolutionary political theory includes both

The main elements of the audit process:



In other words, do not constitute a ruling or no political power.



putting emphasis on the mobilization of national forces are highest.

The organization of the work of preserving the fundamental relationship between leaders is mobilizing Vpyrvan.





As summarized by Professor **************************** advice ***************

Revolution: The struggle for power grip, just under the old regime is Vpydaysh other state.

Vertical revolution: internal revolution within the revolution of independent states called vertical.

Defined national uprising (the horizontal) and its difference with the revolution (the vertical) power struggle between different Thus, the result of limiting state power colonialist or imperialist Shvddvlt cause the colony to settle. We say that if the horizontal.

Definition of social revolt and its difference with the insurrections national protection of collective society of revolutionaries, there is a strong probability that the revolutionaries Jrafyay area Vamny Education should not be teaching.

Definition and purpose of the Civil War: Conflict Dvsakht relatively autonomous political status Vnyrvy Jrafyay marked suppression of the potential results of analysis of territorial self-determination Vajbar be independent or self-determination is achieved.

 

During the revolutionary struggle of the Revolutionary ruling coalition if the group is not very likely to be radical.

Social consequences, the more stable times Vsazndgy after the revolution, thus putting the reforms in the sense Byjast.

Vahtmay military revolts and national differences in the positions of screenshots

Revolution: The Ideology of the power of social mobilization that the future has long Vmtzmn

Military rebellion: the sudden lack the power to mobilize Vaydyvlvzhy

Social revolt: it involves mass mobilization but does not plan to change political institutions

National Rebellion: The power to type long Vmtzmn mobilizing ideology.

Defined coup: military rebellion Vakhraj sudden abrupt one-step process of the establishment of the collapse of the power of both together Vykbarh done Vtjdyd

The two-stage process is more or less long interval between the time of the collapse Vtjdyd arise.

 

Conditions of armed revolt: Yes they are ready to use force to overthrow the government by force and other means necessary to have

Political culture is the top one - believed to be widespread popular legitimacy among 2 - to be an effective political entity, 3 - has broad political participation in the public

 

Civil society into four categories: 1 - (democracy with a stable Western) political legitimacy and civil society has developed military intervention are not two - legitimate means of transferring power conflict Alarghm development institutions and civil society thoughts among political, military intervention of

Politics is not about no resistance

Pratvryn community status: favorable conditions for the occurrence of the military uprisings that structural weakness that occurs in communities more say Pratvryn link

+ نوشته شده توسط عليرضا زينالي اقدم در و ساعت |
What is globalization? Renato Giroux is the first head of the World Trade Organization, the global reality that will stick in your palate. Despite numerous Antsharktab about globalization, we are still in the conceptual analysis inaccurate, empirically weak, in terms of historical and cultural Svadanh, the politically naive and unaware indicated. Ted Turner Srshnasgfth the face of "globalization goes quickly but the ability to understand and respond to the motion is a turtle. Five broad definition of "globalization" is very suggestive. 1 - A sense of the meaning of globalization is internationalization. Cross-border relations between countries of the world to describe and characterize the development of international exchange and interdependence. "Widespread and growing flows of trade and investment among countries Disables" The increasing globalization movement and displacement of people, messages and ideas among countries. 2 - Globalization, liberalization is intended to mean. 3 - Globalization means the World Wide Web is considered. Refers to the process of publishing experience and a variety of peoples. 4 - The American West and to know the meaning of this view, globalization is a dynamic social structures through which modernism's spread across the world. And autonomous culture and will destroy earliest. 5 - The deterritorialization means such as the renewal of the geographical configuration of social space more fully in terms of land, territorial distances and territorial borders are not recognized. There are different views about globalization Some believe that globalization is nothing more than a temporary period of human history is short and there is no need to revise their understanding of international politics Western capitalism and globalization in the name of modernization else know. Some also believe that world politics is fundamentally changing Bangr process and requires a new understanding of it. Evaluating about globalization are divided into three categories. 1 - "Universalists" claim is completely contemporary social world. Examples of "non-national companies' e-commerce - consider making 3 - "intermediate" major trend of globalization consider it along with other developments, there is a great gap between completion. The transformation and globalization of the contemporary world and its dimensions are carefully measured and evaluated. Measuring globalization emphasizes the perspective of the group often unevenly spread. Four of globalization and social change 1 - Production of Globalization Globalization has changed the nature of economic activity largely by technological developments In March and transportation, communications and data processing are related. The advances in production and changes in how they are produced. 2 - Governance: Some experts believe globalization is preventing the authority and autonomy of states. Developing relationships with other world "weakening the national government" and "the decline of the nation-state" and the government retreated know. Several feet beyond the "crisis of the nation-state" and endangered the national government "have declared. Increasingly powerful government and semi-government organizations and the public will be given a sub-state. Simultaneously, the kind of" new multilateralism "It is apparent that:  B: international organizations that are independent from governments to become global governance institutions.  B: global companies and international agencies and civil society in the process of organizing and monitoring are effective. will become. As a result, the diversity and the globalization of post-national approach is based on a single global culture of consumerism, mass media, Gray and American English. It is considered that the ideas of globalization and cultural diversity will increase. 4 - Modernity and Psanvgrayy: Some believe that globalization has led to the development of modernism "high-level international relations in a way that is progressive and Extremist develop and expand the footprint of new structures, such as rationalism, bureaucracy, capitalism and industrialism is. These Some of the theorists themselves "postmodern" to know post-modern globalized world characterized by information-oriented media, Frahqyqy, virtual simulation and social experiences in which people define their sense of identity and their awareness of sustainability lose. Consequences of globalization on democracy: elimination rule, the principles of democracy creates opportunities for expansion. As the emergence of "postmodern states" it is imperative that they use and the opposition being prophets of doom "chaotic events" caused "global chaos" to predict the pessimistic view of globalization intolerance and violence in the form of extreme nationalism, racism, religious fundamentalism, terrorism appears. Increased globalization of the Civil War, particularly in eastern and southern states will weaken.'s Second important aspect of the world, the integration of environmental security. Those who have a positive attitude toward the subject of international conferences - Support Groups Global Environment to maintain awareness of the contemporary world, such as digital computer technology could be significantly improved environmental management. After an extensive literature on globalization is claimed security and economic security are its supporters on developments emphasize the efficiency and economic growth. It is said to increase global trade distribution of consumer satisfaction is the most popular low price. Create jobs, reduce work pressure due to technological advances, the pace and scale of humanitarian aid is greater than the last. Globalization of others will lead to environmental disaster. The sample consists of uncontrolled exploitation and erosion of natural resources, excessive growth of the world's population, nuclear destruction, acid rain, destruction of the ozone layer, climate change, endangered species, AIDS, and ... Justice: Do people have the same opportunities to participate in global issues or condones the repression of the population of the world is. Do people Btv fair share of costs? Most of the negative comments about social justice aspects of this phenomenon that often emphasizes the continuity and deepening of the social hierarchy. Some argue that globalization will increase the elite's privileges. Income gap has increased in most countries. Many women's rights, gender injustice with regard to globalization. Injustice in the rural population of the other negative aspects of globalization Rural areas than in urban areas are benefited from globalization. Because of the continued trend of globalization, urban development is the effort. The "world food culture of" strengthening the industrial and financial capital in rural areas and large living and livelihood and food security in the sub damage is landlords. The history of "globalization." The word "globe" world in English a few hundred years ago when it became clear that the earth is spherical and the "round earth" was coined. In common language, global international character "of the 1890s to refer to the" whole world "is used. Terms of" globalization "in a paper that was published 50 years after applied. (Rayzr and Davis, 1944, p 212 and 219), the term globalization first appeared in 1961 in an American dictionary (Webster, 1961, p 965) Implications of globalization: 1 - Drrayj the use of the term globalization in everyday language, it is equivalent to have Tsvrkrdh internationalization. This view of globalization "and Abstgy an increase engagement and interaction between people of different countries of the world." 2 - apply the neoliberal "globalization and liberalization is considered to mean" from this viewpoint, our globalizing world without barriers for controlling the transfer of resources across countries. " 3 - Globalization refers to the "World Wide Web" 4 - Western sense of the post-colonial imperialism comes about. In most of these cases, globalization is linked to the process of homogenization. 5 - globalization as "deterritorialization" is considered. Globalization in the application indicates a wide variation in the nature of social space. Dimension of Globalization In terms of communication: Tzyq global expansion of computer networks, telecommunications, and mass media, as it has been realized. In terms of organization The process of globalization through the development and growth of enterprises, institutions and regulatory bodies that act as transnational networks has proceeded. Of Ecology: By phenomena such as globalization, climate change, ozone layer thinning, and reduction occurs at the surface represents environmental diversity. None of these environmental changes can not be confined to a particular country. Production of: Garkhanh of "globalization" in sectors such as automobile and motorcycle manufacturing in the field of microelectronics have been developed in various stages of production within a national economy is not limited to hold the number of countries, and the production of a single be included global. In the military: : We have seen the emergence of a global arms intercontinental ballistic missiles, spy satellites in the whole world has turned into a single strategic areas. Thinking in everyday life: In the early 21st century as much as those who live in the same place as previous generations did not know that. Causes of Globalization 1 - The development of rationalism as the predominant  The general configuration of the global spread of rationalism thinking through the process of globalization has expanded the knowledge of the four main characteristics are distinct. A: That is true secular aspects of the physical world defines it in terms of the need B: The human dimension is oriented mainly to the fact that in terms of human interests and activities (C) the characteristics of a "scientist" is the indisputable fact that the phenomenon can be detected by careful application of research methods to objectively understand Vslyh D rationalism is an aspect that is considered the most valuable insight that allows people to solve immediate problems. 2 - number of turns in the evolution of capitalism 3 - Technological innovation in communications and data processing 4 - form a strong regulatory framework Most of these laws are derived from the state summary of laws and regulations to strengthen the 4-way globalization. 1 - Standardization of procedures and technical 2 - free cross-border movement of cash, investments, goods and services 3 - to guarantee property rights for international capital 4 - The law of international organizations and activities Globalization of production: Capitalism has helped to strengthen further. The concept of global politics: Patterns in the world of politics and policy, not just in the countries of the relationships between organizations that may or may not be a country (such as multinational corporations, terrorist groups, NGOs, human rights) Normative views of academicians with the scientific study of international politics and political problems of the world can find reasons to politicians to help solve these problems. This is called a normative perspective. Marxist theory (structuralism or world system theory): 1 - The main feature of world politics is happening in the global capitalist economy 2 - The main categories of actors are not states and other actors' behavior is described by a class of agents 3 - governments, multinational corporations and international organizations representing the interests of the dominant classes in the world economy 4 - The global economy severely limit the government's freedom of action. 5 - a global politics of class conflict in which it occurs 6 - The most important feature of the international economy in the world into the center, semi-periphery and periphery is 7 - The most important feature of world politics Miran economic independence. 8 - Authority to the extent that it is not important because it is important for the realist concept of the political and legal implications. 9 - Marxists believe that globalization is no illusion It is the final stage in the development of international capitalism. 10 - The globalization of the world rather than being similar to the difference between the center and the periphery more. * The process of globalization has increased communication between communities. A world in which events in political, economic, social and cultural impact of these events is increasingly linked to each other more. Globalization eight characteristics: 1 - Globalization is a common feature of modernization. This change alters the nature of the industry in order to enhance accountability and reduce its control over the results. The old model of international relations based on power politics would be abolished. 2 - between globalization and the influence of writers such as Rostow argued that there are many similarities. 3 - liberal paradigm, written literature has an important place. 4 - very much like the picture of the world that globalization offers the features that McLuhan's "global village" is drawn there. 5 - an overlap between some of the major themes and issues of globalization and the works of writers such as John Burton there. John Burton has established a global policy reform cobweb model. This means that the main patterns of global politics, commerce, communication, language, ideology, and so created that the traditional focus on political relations between states are. 6 - in the 60 - 70-80 dramatic works of the authors of the project "World Order Models Project" was released relevant. They were focused on the global issue that is now the main focus of most studies are done with globalization. Views of members of the World Order Models Project unit of analysis is the individual level of analysis is universal. This model is more focused on the most vulnerable people in the world and the environment. 7 - The idea of ​​some of the concepts of globalization and the international community believe that there are similarities. 8 - Globalization many commonalities with the arguments of Fukuyama's end of history. With five of the world economy can be concluded: 1 - Globalization refers to a banner day for the last stage of capitalism (Thompson and Hyrst) 2 - Transnational corporations are actually pretty rare, most of them are national companies that operate internationally 3 - no change in the capital and financial flows to developing countries can not be seen. 4 - In a global economy, international trade, investment and finance, not three blocks in Europe, North America and Japan are concentrated 5 - The current international economic and unique, not only on the economy of some aspects of the 1870 and 1914 international economy is less open Opponents of globalization point of view 1 - This is a reference to the last stage of capitalism is the motto sting 2 - The impact of globalization is not balanced, and it seems that it is a Western concept and is applicable only to a small part of humanity. 3 - Globalization may be the final stage of Western capitalism 4 - With the globalization of losers in this process are 5 - All the forces of globalization are not necessarily good 6 - All of what is called the universal rule is that the transnational social movements who are responsible and accountable 7 - At the heart of globalization, there is an oxymoron.deny justified. Replies to the objections of critics of globalization: 1 - First, globalization has not achieved the same in different parts of the world. Reducing distances and geographical boundaries of North America, the Pacific Rim and ... Higher than in Africa and Central Asia. In addition to the general globalization of urban residents, professionals and young people affected is much higher than the other. 2 - Globalization is a process of cultural assimilation 3 - Globalization and territorial jurisdiction of the policies of the world has not. 4 - Globalization can not be understood in terms of a single driving force. It can not be a conspiracy Ahmytanra to bring down American or Western. 5 - Globalization is not a panacea. Liberalists the emergence of a world body "border" as Dawn equality, prosperity, peace and freedom worldwide have embraced. Sovereignty in the age of globalization: 1 - Westphalian system, largely thanks to the advance of globalization is history. 2 - What are the legal and regulatory regimes in terms of practical sovereignty can no longer meet the criteria. 3 - In the context of globalization and social characteristics are Frasrzmyny borders by electronic mass flow loses its previous importance Transmission of computer data, precipitation fallout and phone calls can not be stopped at the border checkpoints deployed. sovereignty legitimizes. Chapter 12 (Global and international security during the Cold War) Security concept: Typically something most writers have different opinions about it. we need the military aspects of security, including political, economic, social and environmental, and the wider international context is defined. This approach requires attention to the interests of the neighboring countries as well.  Some dual processes of integration and disintegration which characterize today's world means that countries should pay more attention to the issue of social security.national of the country, the security analysis must be the center of attention.  Some experts believe that the global community in the 1990s because the fetus is not high emphasis on national and international security. Therefore, only the formation of the international community to deal with this threat can be effectively addressed. The traditional approach to the issue of national security: is supported and there is no way in the world based on self-help. - Traditional look to the international community as if a fairly brutal fight scene that followed a security threat to its security at the expense of their neighbors. Relations between countries are seen as a struggle to obtain power. Neorealist main hypotheses are: 1 - The international system is anarchic 2 - to defend his country and the expansion of offensive military capabilities will provide power 3 - suspicion and distrust among the nature of the international system is 4 - governments are seeking to maintain their independence and sovereignty and survival has become their main motives 5 - While governments act rationally, but there is a possibility of error in the calculations. The authors Nyvryalstty like Myrshay, not a permanent feature of international politics of the war, however, may lead to ongoing security competition will be like rain that war may be permanent. Therefore, to achieve real and lasting peace or a world in which governments do not compete with each other for power is very limited. - Between countries are difficult - From the perspective of neo-realist writers after the war was possible to create a dramatic change in the nature of the international system is small Persian Gulf War, the experience of violence in the former Yugoslavia, the former Soviet Nshah parts of the world that we live in a Its main feature is the lack of trust in the security field continues Rqabyt. Cooperation between the countries will be difficult to achieve and maintain, but it would be more difficult. Political causes two factors contribute to the problem. Countries are worried about gaining a sense cheating on each other to be together. Such a situation could provide an opportunity for the fraudulent manner in which the victim has suffered a decisive defeat. - 2 - the concern about the "achievements" relative to the international environment full of competition, distrust, and to maximize instability., so it will be more difficult to reach and maintain coordination difficult. Security dilemma: insecurities of others to be defensive, as each of these actors, their actions and the actions of others potentially intimidating closed. Origins of the security dilemma, uncertainty and fear. Realist subject: logical and inevitable consequence of the structural realist's fundamental assumptions.would prefer to compete in these conditions it is possible to achieve security. Conditioned by three reasons realist believes "structural realism" is incomplete: 1 - They race "axis" of the fundamental theory of structural realism reject. The realists international relations if only because it features "self-help" is not necessarily conclude that countries are condemned to perpetual war competition will 2 - Common structural realism, because the emphasis is on the relative gain is flawed and unacceptable. Ryalythay condition because the work that they are aware of the dangers that the country is seeking advantage 3 - realists believe that the third condition is too much fraud because fraud creates risks as well as the arms race Sum of three reasons: 1 - the "competition - oriented" as opposed to the theory 2 - Motivation countries is only relative gains 3 - that the emphasis on the concept of fraud is overstated Reasonable Chaos: This view can be bound through security cooperation (if not destroy) improve. Barry Buzan believes the gradual emergence of the feature 1980 and 1990 (the anarchic sense) that those countries continue to compete aggressively in the global nuclear dangers were understood. - Old and new neighbors into enemies. - Conflict can be solved peacefully through political and diplomatic means. Liberal institutions: International imposed. .can also be provided by organizations like the African nations of ASEAN in Southeast Asia / view among academic writers in the 1980s and early 1990s was Nyzrayj they believe a pattern of institutionalized cooperation instituationalized co-operation)). According to Cohen and Maarten institutions can provide information to bring down transaction costs, credit commitments, they are the focus areas for the overall coordination and interaction to facilitate the. Proponents of this view of the importance of economic policy in Europe, overcoming traditional hostility between European countries are mentioned. They can play a role in achieving a higher level of cooperation between the countries have. Democratic Peace Theory: This theory was developed in 1980 was based on Kantian logic consists of three primary components democratic elections - a commitment to human rights and the interdependence of different countries together. Democratic peace theory is largely written by Michael Doyle and Bruce Wright is seen. War - axis (war-porn) are. There is essentially one another or the use of force. Doyle believes that one of the fruits of democracy is that it conflicts before they lead to violent conflict is resolved. Collective security 1 - resort to military force to change the status quo and instead agreed to condemn the methods of peaceful settlement of disputes is 2 - They have their own national interests more broadly. Interests of the international community so that it can be considered. 3 - The government must overcome the fear and distrust each other and trust each other. Priority treatment is chaos. Collective security as a way to create more effective strategies to deal with aggressive look. Inhibition of collective security is codified Institutions of collective security role in a world full of friends and colleagues who have contributed to the trust to arise. Institutionalizing the system of harmony and agreement between countries is deepening security promise not to as the "self" path to follow. Different views on international and global security: Social Constructivism Theory: According to this view, the fundamental structures of international relations are social rather than physical. - Their principal reference Governments recognize that the study of international politics and international security. International politics is based on chaos - Countries have offensive capabilities and intentions of others can not certainly achieve the main goal is survival of states and countries are trying to have a rational function - That benefit is formed by the structure of the international system The difference in orientation with realistic  realists believe the only material capable of dividing forms.  Constructivism that is the product of social relations. Product of such common knowledge that social structures and material resources Mlkrdhast Social Constructivism emphasizes the notion of common knowledge is important in the social structures of the material (such as banks and financial resources) Constructivism is the idea of ​​power politics that affect the behavior of governments, but can not explain all behaviors in the international arena. Safety critical theory and feminist approaches: such as safety critical and feminist theorists have emphasized the importance given to the role of government and the security context are defined differently. The school safety critical theorists, governments should be the center of our analysis. Thus, not only because of their personality differences, but most are part of the problem of security in the international system of states could be providing security. But they are the source of the threat. Therefore, we focus instead on the wisdom of governments to Booth, Wayne Jones of reference that relying on the best way to ensure security through human Zdsazy. Emphasizing the goal of freeing up the ground for the development of doctrine, policy, hoping for a "politics of resistance" provided. Feminist writers of the traditional emphasis on the role of states in international security studies are challenging, but not much difference between feminist theories of postmodernism and critical theory Frasakhtargra there. The perspective of postmodernism: Many of the post-modern view of the goal of replacing "social dialogue" instead of a new discourse on peace and harmony discourse emphasizes realism.assumed a will. The main difference between realism and postmodernism 1 - Realism world fixed, definite, intelligible and understandable knows Postmodernist believe about the world around us, there are numerous various interpretations. No continuity, meaning as definite, fixed field, or learn the secrets of seal does not break. They are just perceptions or interpretations of 2 - Postmodernist emphasis on knowledge as the basis for abstract (mental) causes important to them in terms of normative values. 3 - The Postmodern, the static and silent realist ideology is not only men but also with a global policy is outdated and dangerous discourse is becoming a major obstacle to the formation of hegemonic discourse is peaceful. 4 - post modern "certainty" is realism 6 - postmodern social dialogue should agree not only to be replaced by realism. Rather, the goal is achievable. Chapter 13 (International Political Economy in the Age of Globalization) World economy after World War II: Policymakers gathered at Bretton Woods in 1944 to examine how to solve two serious problems 1 - Great Record 1930 sure was not replicated in other words, a way to achieve a stable international monetary system and global free trade system found 2 - economy to rebuild war-torn Europe . 2 - International Bank for Reconstruction Development (World Bank) to facilitate private investment and restructuring in Europe and contribute to development of only three other countries - favor a tariff limited experience (GATT) was signed in 1947 and the negotiations on trade liberalization become. Traditional approaches to political economy: The highest gains for investments to be followed. With the help of freely convertible currencies of economies and free markets can do better. World prices of all these factors creates an effective and uniform distribution as the invisible hand ensures that goods and services in the global economy. In order to face the global economy is minimal. St. Mrkantysty  Your words are like a forest international system in which each state is doing whatever it takes to survive. The purpose of any government is to increase the wealth and independence. Some states explicitly in the system more ability to deal with others. The most powerful states to define the limits of the law and pay. The economic policies of the governments of each of the function's efforts to maintain its sovereignty within and outside the country. Marxist tradition: Capitalist means of production in the hands of those who are oppressed working class. The conflict between them is due to the fact that the capitalists are trying to increase their profits. Anatomy in international relations and class relations in order to explain the relationship between center and periphery is unequal exchange between them. Rational choice approach or modern utilitarianism: The U.S. is the dominant approach to the study of international political economy. This approach uses economic concepts to explain the policy.can have strategic choices. This approach is well suited to describe rational terms. "Rational choice" or a tendency to gain new ideas? In this approach, economic concepts are used to explain the policy. Instead of rational choice explaining concepts, personalities, historical tradition or ideology behind the policies and institutions that are focused on the structure of incentives facing decision makers.At that time, this was the most appropriate option. Nyvgramshy approach, radical reading: The benefit here is that, in the opinion of all the actions and behavior of the world economy, culture and knowledge emerge. This is the question that is raised is that the interests and beliefs of the rules and norms of whom are included in this system. Gramsci's answer to "who benefits" is the hegemonic power through coercion and consent of the other actors in the system achieves its goals. This means that the dominant power in the promotion of institutions, ideologies and ideas that will encourage other players are very effective. The globalization of the world economy, reducing the role of government? control of economic interaction. The flow rate, the trade, investment, governments have tightened create a. Chapter 14 of the international regime Liberal institutionalists and realists regime's role in the international system, despite the fact that the structure of the international system is anarchic, but no law (Anvmyk) is not. Realists and liberal institutionalists look different from the regime: - Liberal institutionalists believe that the regime will allow the government to overcome the obstacles in the way of cooperation. Structural barriers it has created chaos peaceful international system Liberal institutionalists and realists are common assumptions about regimen: 1 - states in an anarchic international system, to successfully 2 - states are acting in a reasonable and simple 3 - states are responsible for the formation regimes 4 - regime based on international cooperation in the form 5 - to strengthen the international regulatory regime Liberal institutionalists and realists regimes on different perspectives: Liberal institutionalists:  regimes enable states to work  regimes reinforce the public interest  hegemonic regimes when it began to develop a kind and gentle strengthening and support them  regimes of globalization and liberal world order are Realists:  Coordination possible regimes for the country (annoying)? Will  different regimes of interest for the country to create  power is the main feature of regime formation and  nature of the rules and norms of international regulatory regimes depends Defined regimes: the regime of the high definition, but they all have the same definition in 1980 by "Stephen Krasyz" is presented widely. Set of rules, principles, norms, rules and decision-making processes are based on the implicit and explicit expectations of actors in a given area of ​​international relations, and the convergence becomes closer. From this definition it is clear that diet is more than just laws and a high level of institutionalization as a default occurs. Sbqh classification regime: Regime classification is based on two dimensions: 1 - vertical dimension: expressing formal or informal agreements diet is a diet could be related to the emergence of an international organization. 2 - horizontal dimension: a regime in the absence of any formal agreement, there is an informal agreement between countries on the basis of historical precedent is created. Another classification of regimes: - Diet tacit: even the official Nbvdqvad expect there to observe informal rules - Discredited regime: formal rules, but there is no expectation of observing them - Full-scale regimes: the high expectations created by law enforcement officials. Based on geographical divisions: 1 - Bilateral 2 - Region 3 - World A regimen of four main components: 1 - Principles: a coherent set of theoretical statements, and statements about how the world functions. GATT was based on liberal principles upon which global prosperity through free trade increases 2 - norms: norms of behavior and specifies the rights and obligations of governments to identify 4 - The process of making sense guidelines for behavior Many theories about the formation regimes: Liberal institutionalist approach: The starting assumption is that the problems of chaotic regime should the international system has to overcome. They are trying to figure out why it is working to prevent chaos and to find ways to overcome barriers. Barriers to regime formation: Liberal institutionalists for understanding why the structure of the international system prevents violent chaotic regime is the formation of microeconomics and game theory could help. Although liberal institutionalists and realists believe that diet is the most important characteristic of the international system, but they both come to different results.  The liberal institutionalists: Necessity is the regime for properties in the violent anarchy of the international system, there are strategies that will neutralize competitive strategies based on cooperation. Their purpose is to prevent competitive strategies in other cases the rational response of structural system is chaotic manner.  Realists: the emergence of regimes that are subject to a condition in which there is a mutual desire for cooperation but also creates chaos synchronization problem. Islam, unlike the realist assumption that there is no incentive to coordinate a time to come aside. There is no doubt that the "primary role" to play your diet can cause other states are expected to follow this diet. - Difference of opinion about the regime's economic realists openly reveals the role of power in the regime. The rich and powerful governments that have shaped economic regimes and third world countries have no choice except to accept it. What is diplomacy? (Chapter 15) One of the most obscure and difficult diplomatic terms that have different meanings depending on its application. Diplomacy of the landscape is divided into two categories. 1 - Macro: that tries to make sense of world politics as a whole to understand. 2 - micro perspective: the world of politics, which tries to explain the different but complementary angle. This approach focuses on states and countries that have worked to his advantage in world politics. In the longer perspective of international players such as the government's policy is to understand the behavior of the actors in the global system to obtain a clear view. From the perspective of international diplomacy can be seen as a process rather than as a political tool. May be used directly in contact with other parties (as diplomacy) or as a vehicle for the use or threat of use of other tools can be used (policy mix) Characteristics of traditional diplomacy: 1 - Structure: the relationship among state political leaders realized it was developed together on a regular and consistent basis to talk and negotiate.respectively). 2 - Process: the traditional system of bilateral diplomacy based organization that was confidential and trade secret diplomacy between the government and do not necessarily permanent ambassador was considered normal. The only means to reach a common agreement on the settlement of disputes was considered. Traditional diplomacy diplomatic process on the system of rules and regulations have been adopted for the conduct of diplomacy from the 15th century onwards, regular and regularity is not only constant, but the process became. Procedural rules called "diplomatic protocol" was developed, called the set of rights, privileges and exemptions for diplomats and diplomatic activities were held. These rights and privileges were derived from two principles: (a) the action is based on considerations that diplomats can do their mission without fear or hindrance. B: Representative Ambassador King is governed by the diplomatic personnel residing deploy state laws are just function. New diplomacy: 1 - It was urged that public diplomacy should be subject to monitoring and evaluation 2 - To create an international organization Mrbvr new diplomatic representative of the universal hope for a fresh start in the period after 1918. The structure of the new diplomacy: But there are two changes. 1 - states that they had no other major players in the international arena with other players to divide 2 - Self-administration of a wide range of activities in which its citizens were trying to adjust to life began to change. Process of the new diplomacy The interests of the growing number of state and non-state actors on the changing nature of diplomacy as a new process for the negotiation. Most importantly, the policy has become more complex activity involving more actors and it was very different.. Agenda: The agenda includes a number of new policy and the new emphasis on military security was intense. Cold War diplomacy: With all the tools to be a hot war of the Cold War to undermine the other party describing the system was coping. Absolute necessity of avoiding involvement in global nuclear confrontation between East and West was at the center of diplomatic activity. Most of the Cold War policy of nuclear diplomacy, crisis diplomacy and summit diplomacy was. by military forces would provide a model for the future. But the collapse of the established order in the Balkan diplomacy fails to resolve the problem and showed optimism for the end of the Cold War has a complex nature. At the beginning of 21st century diplomacy in international politics can be described in two ways 1 - Scope of international diplomacy. 2 - Characterization of contemporary diplomacy can be complex and discontinuous inextricably said. Formulation and implementation of foreign policy: Governments must understand the role of diplomacy in foreign policy, there are two stages in this process. 2 - policy: the State Department's decision to operate can be diplomacy is one of the means by which decisions are implemented. Foreign policy bureaucracies second fiddle plays an essentially non-political. Five main task of diplomacy, including: 1 - Data collection 2 - Political Advice 3 - Representation 4 - Negotiation 5 - Consular Services The first two are essential for the formulation of foreign policy. Diplomatic relations with other policy tools - Pure Diplomacy - Shuffle Diplomacy Instrument for political diplomacy. - 1 - threatened to deploy troops to the country's position in negotiations Tqvyn - 2 - Economic Measures - 3 - Regular use of new tools for subversion Chapter 16 of the United Nations and the international order Problems between and within countries: Countries are expected to comply with the minimum standards of acceptable quality in providing social and economic justice. One of the reasons for this disagreement regarding realistic view of what is happening inside the country had nothing to do with any of the countries. The international community was willing to resolve violations of the ethical cosmopolitanism were inseparable.between countries that violate human rights, civil rights, the lack of international order is to risk falling. Follow the traditional rules of behavior, there was an increasing challenge for diplomats. They are based on traditional principles should ignore the internal affairs of States to maintain global stability.If the relationship between heart hated the concept of conflict of national interests and pursue justice, there was a first priority. Public aid activities such as peacekeeping, humanitarian intervention as a step in a number of cases where national interests were defended. The moral judgment and linking the activities of national interest will strengthen. One of the key issues to consider increasing readiness within the UN there. The main factor was the international system of sovereign equality of States Parties to the United Nations and international law are equal. The intervention in the traditional sense is always in conflict with the principles of the United Nations. But during the government to interfere in the internal affairs of each other and sometimes they think they are entitled to do this. It is proposed that the United Nations Charter states consider not only salary but also considers the law has. Human Shdydhqvq violation in itself could be a justification for the intervention of the United Nations Kosovo case shows that this approach will be adopted in the future. Security Council resolution 1990 and the establishment of safe zones in Iraq and emphasized the aims of the protected areas of the Kurds against Saddam. The role of the UN in 2000: A: peace and security between states: They were not under UN command. host government deployed troops under UN Secretary-General and the Security Council permanent members were missing. 3 - cooperate with Governments in the development of the specialized agencies and other international organizations were collaborating with the governments of the 60s was the development of appropriate action by the "United Nations Development Program» undp cooperation with the host government, was later found by the UNDP coordination difficult. Such as public health and disease control, agricultural development. 5 - Human rights monitoring and benchmarking: a wide range of human rights conventions and guidelines on benchmarking, monitoring and observing them for low pressure was centered. (B) equity within countries: 1 - humanitarian aid 2 - Developing a new agenda for development 3 - be part of the next government 4 - Safeguarding of Peace 5 - Promotion of Human Rights 6 - Registration of Arms A: The problem of global governance in the 21st century: 1 - continuing problems of coordination and planning 2 - coping problems and the need for neutrality 3 - financial problems 4 - problems with executive authority and legitimacy 5 - Problem and analysis Chapter 17 Subject of international relations at the beginning of the relationship between Britain and countries like India. Institutional, economic, social and environmental student organizations and industrial companies ... As non-state actors, but this approach is of secondary importance in the world today, especially because of the globalization phenomenon has been challenged for some reason. 1 - There is no ambiguity in the meaning of the second match of the contemporary world - today the government due to the economic activities of transnational corporations and the threat of violent criminals and guerrillas are losing their rule in the third - non-government organizations the network of relationships in the world that The governments involved have lost their political independence. State-centric approach: This is possible only if the international relations, government relations can be defined to include the Governments approach - based or called realism. Some authors believe that the issue of "non-state actors should only be considered in cases of what is going on between the government and not the more» "Non-state actors" of the term implicit is that states are the dominant actors and other actors are secondary. But it is not clear ambiguity, intergovernmental organizations, international organizations are national or non-national organizations. The major advantage of government approach - axis is the relative complexity of world politics simply because it makes the same assumption explains the interactions of 200 units. Four approaches to the problem - axis: the meaning «stat» is different and that means the Government has set. The legal concepts of civil society and social policy of the state, while philosophers and sociologists have emphasized the concept of the state government, civil society and state are separated. Therefore, in cases where international law or order of the state government can not contain community actors in the transnational relationships between governments and communities must be examined. 2 - Lack of similarity between countries: the definition of giving equal status and equal rights for all states in the sense that they are all basically the same type. Conventional analysis applying the power of medium and small power to recognize the differences between countries.general recognition of the right to have a government that they are legally similar but are different from each other politically.It is also a great variety. . A cohesive unit that serves the public know. 4 - The difference between the state and the nation: the politics of countries with a significant amount of policy Social identity is a hierarchy of local identity and national identity to the wider grouping continues. The national societies and intergovernmental organizations can also contribute to the personal dependence. Financial flows and undermining the rule: the large transnational corporations, has had important consequences can no longer be said that every nation has its own separate economy. Dvmshkhsh control of the governance of exchange controls on foreign trade are greatly weakened. import and export directly in front of the nation, but to prevent indirect trade with other countries, there is no way guaranteed. UN definition of acceptable international nongovernmental organizations: Economic and Social Council of the United Nations Charter based on six principles are considered: 1 - NGOs should support the goals and activities of the United Nations 2 - NGOs should be identified centered at a selected entity and its officials against a Democratic Assembly and be responsible for policy 3 - The organization is non-profit does not 4 - not a violent person or nongovernmental organization that supports 5 - Non-governmental organizations to the principle of "non-interference in the internal affairs of countries cultural" respect 6 - International NGO organization that has been negotiated between the governments of the principle of non-being is a technical legal term. Never open borders is to be unimportant. So go beyond the borders of all kinds of international organizations and intergovernmental and transnational actors affect their constituents. In general, the constituent documents of international organizations Amlly are goals, rules of behavior, the Secretariat undertook to indicate the identity of the organization and interaction processes. The view that international organizations are systems indicate that they are politically and international politics can not be reduced to relations between countries. System and policy issues in international politics: The Realists, competence is not determinative influence. Usually the legal authority of the government, controlled by the economic and military capabilities of specialized information and communications accessible to support the goals and values ​​are. Political process can be communicated in a way that will attract attention and respect from other players is vital. If the power is dominant only in the military is seen by governments and multinational companies overcome by the power of economic resources will be seen. connecting the different areas. Changes in domestic politics and global civil society resource companies are often economic change and political action NGOs are often the source of new ideas for. Communications and Internet Revolution: Chapter 25 The explosive growth of the Internet in the 1990s entered the global arena. Communications has always had an important role in international relations, which has increased in importance today. This effect will last for a long time is overlooked. But today, due to the three front-line communication, globalization and international relations are: 1 - governments have developed policies and competitive telecommunication sector monopolized the communication infrastructure to abandon the traditional rules and regulations and needed only the created. New and vital component of globalization, faster and cheaper means of communication such as fax, phone, computer, internet and ... This means the people, companies and countries, and almost no time period is connected. Although food, housing, healthcare, and vital human needs is important, but the main factor for the development of an efficient communication network access and innovation, productivity and job creation has become. Instantaneous global communications to non-state actors gives the power and might of the political, military and economic might of the origin of these changes is discussed ICT  The global network of 90 computers in the world, greatly reduced the cost of international phone calls In the past, communications and telephone services in the state was allowed to enter areas such as communications or satellite television did not. It was the first international policies on 2 axis - the exclusive provider of communication services and the lack of competition in the phone 2 - systems and equipment international standards became the norm. Management of international telecommunications submarine cable since 1970, remained unchanged in the core of the management, "International Telecommunications Union," the task: 1 - Developing technical criteria 2 - ensure the efficiency and suitability of 3 - ensure there is no interference with the frequency and length available 4 - Provide technical assistance to poor countries 5 - assigning satellite orbits around the earth Reagan-Thatcher economic revolution of the 1980s provided the global communications revolution.section. The analysis atandt companies to small companies in the U.S., have revised their policies and regulations in different countries and created competition and innovation. With the development of voice communications and data exchange via telephone or wireless, to the borders of the country apart and fade gradually emerged as a global convergence. Digital divide between China increased only exception was in 2000 that the United States has the highest mobile phone. At the international level, the Uruguay Round negotiations in 1994 helped create the belief that the business will be open and competitive telecommunications and information services. Three basic steps for the development of international telecommunications regime was removed from 1-15 in 1998 to compete in the Europe Union countries are required to provide telephone service, 2 - after negotiations with the World Trade Organization about the service connection of other countries. Agreed to: 1 -2 communications market to release 2-2 barriers to competition in local telephone service in urban, intercity and reduce satellite 3-2 of verbal rules are designed to protect competition 4-2 to allow foreign companies to operate in the field of satellite services 3 - The U.S. Federal Communications Commission to unilaterally reduce the cost of international calls Europe is higher. All messages exchanged between Europe, Asia Pacific and the U.S., a third of the messages exchanged between the three regions. explains the evolution of the international success of the Internet. At present, the number of pages that will be added to the Internet every day, which is nine times the population of the world increases. In 1990, fifty percent (50%) of web sites belonging to the U.S. bases in Germany has increased tenfold. 38 percent of users in 2000 were Americans. 2 - The development of electronic commerce is that the Internet is a major customer. In 2000 the share of e-commerce in industrial countries, the U.S. GDP was 5% ahead in this field. 3 - The third transformation: the wireless transmission of data and voice communications will soon be able to wirelessly transmit data and voice communications via wireless to compete strongly. Since wireless voice communications and in some countries, especially poor countries are taken from regular communication. Impact of the information revolution on actors and the role of governments and policy-makers will change. 1 - governments have access to more information, the real risk is paralyzed due to the volume of information, governments and policy makers should distinguish between information that is important from what is not so they 2 - global networks means that the decision-making process can be centralized or decentralized. Governments with centralized decision-making processes that decrease the importance of foreign missions, embassies are. Embassies to gather information and send them to the capitals of their respective countries. 3 - global network state monopoly on the use of information, companies, journalists, non-governmental organizations in most of the states are more and more when to. acquisition of wealth through investments and partnerships that extend beyond national borders. Companies large and growing international relations, especially economic relations, international financial shape. Impact of the information revolution, and military diplomacy: Instantaneous communication via global networks has caused a revolution in military and diplomatic matters. These changes can be divided into three components: It is not yet clear, comprehensive information on the policies to be more appropriate.space for innovation can reduce confidence and self-revelation 2 - global network decides who and how they may change. 3 - a global network of communications and information technology are changing the way modern warfare is all modern armies are investing in information technology and telecommunications. The main cause of degradation and production. Tasyz information revolution on international economic relations and negotiations Global flows of capital may be invested in economic growth and the weakening of national policies and provide grounds for crime and corruption. Chapter 18 Environmental issues:  International was created can help to understand the environmental issues posed challenges to the theory of international relations. The sharp rise in sea fishing, severe erosion and soil degradation, the destruction of natural habitats and vegetation, accumulation of waste in the sea air and water, acid rain, destruction of the ozone layer, from the late 20th century, the effects of global environmental destruction. From the global environment: First, some environmental issues are global in nature (ozone destruction, acid rain, global warming, etc.) and can be addressed only through international cooperation. Second, some operational issues related to the global common resources. (Eg, ocean, sea floor space and outer space) Third, some of the environmental issues are essentially transnational. That is not the general global nature of the cross national boundaries, such as sulfur dioxide may be issued in one country is transmitted by the wind in downstream countries. deforestation, pollution of rivers and of the process) Fifth processes that lead to over-exploitation of resources and environmental degradation are fundamentally political, economic and social processes that link Environmental issues on the international agenda: 1948 as the "Ship Owners Club" was established to facilitate navigation and improve safety. The first international treaty relating to plant in Bern in 1889 to prevent the spread of the disease had spread in the vineyards of Europe were created. Grndgan Protection Convention in 1902, the 1911 Convention on the Protection of the jaws grocery Agriculture in 1945 to preserve natural resources, the Convention on the Law of the Sea to manage access to the sea and sea Bstz in 1960 and ... Were created. Stockholm Convention: the 1972 United Nations Conference on the Human Environment held, to establish an international framework to promote a coordinated approach to the problem of pollution and other environmental issues, its purpose was. The conference was a turning point and institutions created after it had lasting impact. Attention beyond the Stockholm Conference, the public and educate governments, lasting contribution to the environment has to offer: First, the principles of the framework agreement on environmental cooperation in the future. Second: This conference led to the creation of a global network and local environmental monitoring Third: This conference led to the creation of the United Nations Environment Programme Fourth, the conference was broader institutional and political changes. Mhty Environmental Challenges for International Relations: Certain environmental issues challenging the dominant approach to international relations. One of these challenges is the role of governments. But the current thinking about the nature and scope of international environmental governance, the government is faced with serious challenges. While environmental problems are rarely caused by the local government and be more deliberate measures of economic policy is an unintentional side effect of the process. In this process, a large number of companies and non-state actors such as corporations, local authorities, financial institutions and individuals ... The government is at least as important. Although governments in the formulation and implementation of environmental regulations can play a direct role. National organizations such as the Europe Union governments are playing an international role and is able to regulate activities within member states. Even in discussions and negotiations, agreements and international environmental NGOs have the main role. Chapter 19 Expand the core Spread of nuclear weapons is a sign of global politics.and the probability that the world in which different regions are different from each other. Trends in some regions of the world such as Latin America, South East Asia, Africa and Central Asia into a zone free of nuclear weapons, there are others, such as South Asia, East Asia, Middle East and North is toward the development of nuclear weapons by 1945 created a situation that became interdependent core strategic fact of life. nuclear weapons became the most important developments. The problem was that because the government may be seeking to acquire nuclear weapons? The foundations of the minds of policymakers and strategic analysts had engaged in nuclear development time is often in the form of "The Power" will be considered. Nth Power problem During the Cold War between East and West became the stabilizing conflict can also be effective in other situations. The theory underpinning the hypothesis that those who opposed the spread of nuclear weapons, the situation is getting worse, not better, has faced. Afdamat opponents to focus on best practices to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons ahead. Efforts to prevent the proliferation of nuclear weapons led to the emergence of unilateral action, bilateral, regional and universal it is. Collectively, these measures are often global non-proliferation regime, nuclear Slahhhay call. Proponents of this diet believe that these measures a total of 1960 Mhdvdkrdh is the proliferation of nuclear weapons. Critics argue that this regime is discriminatory because it allows five countries still have nuclear weapons. Nature of nuclear weapons and their effects: Effects of nuclear weapons is very high because of the United Nations Commission on Conventional Weapons in 1948 for distinguished from conventional weapons to nuclear weapons, the phrase "weapons of mass destruction" imposed. Energy is produced in three different weapons: 1 - Blast 2 - thermal or radiation heating 3 - nuclear radiation Massive losses of human populations could be the result of nuclear fusion explosion. The largest nuclear weapon ever tested heat is estimated to be a 58 mega-ton bomb (TNT 58 million), which was built by the Soviets at the height of the Cold War. He had caught a disease caused by radiation. The global spread of nuclear technology and ballistic missiles: groups. In all five countries, America, Britain, France, China, the Soviet Union Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty "nuclear weapon states" became the country before 1967 had tested its nuclear weapons in 1998, both in India and Pakistan joined the nuclear weapon states to do tests. The structural change was the development of a civilian nuclear commerce market in the past, America was the only supplier of nuclear materials and technology from France and Germany in the 1970s and later joined Japan to the supplier. But most of the supplier countries, there is concern that the proliferation of nuclear trade rules and not be easier. The increasing development of nuclear delivery methods: In the 1950s, nuclear weapons on bombers Big specifically to carry these weapons were designed so that the advances in technology to build missiles and munitions, nuclear was possible as many countries as a means of nuclear weapons that carry.At the end of the 990 nuclear issue highlight.  Trying to build an anti-missile Balsytk other important developments of the 1960s in the field of anti-ballistic missile negotiators believed would undermine deterrence and international stability. It was this view that each country will deploy these systems are protected against enemy strategic offensive forces.other hand, the defense systems, a major challenge Babur was supposed deterrent. Treaty of 1972 Anti-Ballistic Missile deployment of these missiles (Russian America), the location of the capitals of the two countries and two intercontinental ballistic missile sites and covenants restrictingat different stages of the flight path. But it is also an international response, especially Russia and China will have them believed it would compromise the stability of the international. Theorizing about the spread of nuclear nonproliferation: Most literature written on the subject of political realism is still based on theoretical ideas. Based on the theory of chaotic states in an international environment, nuclear weapons are looking to strengthen their security. Other scientific theories in recent years lost its charm and questions about the spread of nuclear weapons, "according to the analysis of" what might have caused. Should the individual, cultural group, organization, government, or international organization Mjvmh of these stressed? Some analysts strengthening the nuclear non-proliferation talks about the importance of the role of cultural identity and cultural components are stressed. Some also argue that norms, and epistemic communities play an important role in the nuclear case. Some international norms as limiting nuclear behavior and develop appropriate behavioral measures of attention are the actors. The traditional analysis is motivated by the proliferation tends to focus on the inter-governmental and governmental levels. political, strategic and reputation that would follow a nuclear weapon states would have the focus. Later it became the role of deterrence. Proliferation of nuclear weapons is better or worse? One of the most controversial arguments in the context of the proliferation of nuclear weapons, the theory of "more is better" in the early 1980s by Kenneth Waltz argued. Waltz in favor of nuclear proliferation rather than extend his analysis and his theory puts on neorealist assumptions.nuclear weapon. The debate between Waltz and Sagan (sagan), Sagan argued Waltz "proliferation optimists" is He's the best way to encourage the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and the global non-proliferation regime knows.
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The book summarizes the global impact of the Islamic Revolution: Manouchehr Mohammadi doctor Coup: conspiracy arose out of a series of activities of military rule by a minority of people against a regime that had no part in creating it.

 
Revolutions: moving people in the direction of rapid and fundamental change in values, beliefs, and control beliefs, political institutions and social structures, leadership, and procedures governing the activities of a community that is associated with violence.
. Dvmktb the theories put forward for consideration: community to shape its evolution. The transformation of the mode of production creates a contrast between the floor and the floor is pageantry of the ruling classes. Following the revolution. For example, the transformation from agricultural to industrial production methods; rise Brvzva class and proletarian socialist revolution occurred. 2 - School of authenticity functions: basic theory theories "Durkheim" form.properly fulfill their duties well and balance with each other under normal circumstances, but the division of labor between the strike. Non-normal or Patvlvzyky the division of labor is disjointed and thus overcome the disorder and makes imbalance. In most schools, the originality of the work of theorists: Chalmers Johnson: the principle that the disharmony between the environment and value creation in social systems. Equilibrium of the social system of the time there are four sources: A: Change the values ​​with an external source B: Change the value of a local source (population growth and the emergence of new groups) (C) the change of foreign origin (the impact on society of the Industrial Revolution) The changing environment of domestic origin have you lost out on political and non-political institutions to attract the participation of political modernization of the societies that still has not happened, but political development. 3 - Max Weber: Inspired by the traditional sources for political legitimacy and authority named 0.1 - 2 cents - Reason 3 - Charisma Religious and moral economy emerges.
Some theorists associated with political violence and revolutionary behavior. Sorokin: His instincts suppressed the revolutionary upheaval Mvhb knew. Tocqueville: that his expectation was to improve living conditions and increase individual contributor grievances and political aggression. Three Stages of Revolution 1 - socio-political conditions of the " " " " " From the perspective of experts: The Iranian revolution was not only a political system from a monarchy to a republic, but it was not even like the other republics.. First look at the comments and analyzes of what can be achieved is that the revolution is certainly not confined to the borders. It has revolutionized the global implications and repercussions. was based. "Brvmbrzhh" writes French scholar of Iran: The Revolution questioned the legitimacy of international relations. "Hvrkard" also writes some of the Iranian Revolution which saw the outbreak of the Islamic Revolution to threaten world peace.
We are equipped with modern and sophisticated culture of the Islamic Revolution in Iran are concerned. "Kissinger," the reflected America's most famous strategist in the Muslim world, particularly after the spread of Islamic radicalism to analyze. Compared with the great Islamic Revolution Hhan: Comparison of the conditions and circumstances politically - France, Russia, and Iran are also similarities in terms of political positioning and capabilities in four aspects (leadership, ideology, political power and social power) in the popular hub There is a world of difference and contradictions can be observed: • The governments of France and Russia, in economic terms the most deplorable conditions, but the government due to rising oil prices in the most favorable economic and financial conditions. enough troops and equipment to the last moments of life, the political system remained loyal to the regime. Great to deal with their interests motivated the revolution began. be separated using internal and external expert advisors, especially SAVAK had the ability to maintain autocratic power. • About the theory of revolution and revolution: There are several theories about revolution West believed that the sword of Islam spread the Islamic Revolution sought to rule by force and aggression against Islam and Islamic values.
Iran's constitution to come. Different conceptions of revolution: form three perspectives on the Android category. 1 - First view of the fans were nationalists and nationalism in Iran has an ancient history, but the bulk of his estate to the National Grahazhvr.and upgrade the technological level rise and global allergy avoided. They see the value of a global system approach was unacceptable and rejected. Foreign Minister of the Provisional Government, expressly declare that we have no plans to export its revolution. 2 - The revolutionary elements of national borders created during the colonial domination of the Muslim world as a whole, and that as a result of the invasion of cloth that the poles of nationalism and colonialism in West decomposes according to the interests of powerful states, borders and national flags * To maintain national borders and the internal development of the plot and knew the way out in the middle. Continuous attack and attempt to destroy the regime's dominant values ​​surrounding the main view. * The use of military power, intelligence, and equipping armed guerrilla liberation movements in the spotlight in this category. This view will be the first view defiance. An idealized view of the national interest and priority to the interests Ayyvlvzhyk San assumed it was the kind of repression. Accept any international laws and excludes all organizations, institutions and international rules are quite despicable "martyr Muhammad Ali Montazeri," it was considered a leader. 3 - believed to be the work of a nation, and all the tools to create revolutionary, and even harsh military rule for this purpose take advantage.

From the perspective of revolution, Imam Khomeini The Imam was a symbol of the values ​​of objective provide accurate position and three position relative rejected. Comments by non-religious liberals because it makes explicit the negation of the values ​​of the Imam. Why is the Iranian equivalent circuit "Aslammdary" no. Imam's explicit rejection of this view was expressed that the finality of the revolution The second approach uses Hrvsylh as possible to deny the permit system governing international pariah Imam.
Summed up in a revolution of Imam Khomeini's concept emphasizes the value realization and serious effort to provide and promote the values ​​and ideals of the revolution is outside. Strategies of revolution: Revolution was based on the following objectives: 1 - Pattern of 2 - Advertising and Notification 3 - Training 4 - support for liberation movements
* Support for liberation movements: the basis is not limited to Iran's borders but within the boundaries of the Islamic world, and all deprived and oppressed people to join the movement. * Promotion and awareness-building, including through the different ways men and politicians have specific responsibilities of students, teachers, scholars, researchers and abroad are also other methods of revolution. The impact analysis is available in the following dimensions:
(B) the addition of new values ​​based on the moral and spiritual awakening offered that "faith" and "Hvdgzshtgy" was. Clash of Civilizations " " " Revolution in the Persian Gulf states: Royal British protectorate of Iraq and America. The Iranian Revolution, with its unique features, the inspiration for the people of the region. Eleven percent of the sum of one and a half billion people in the world live in countries that have the largest number of Shia Drbhryn 70%, Iraq 60%, Iran 90%, Kuwait, Qtrhrkdam 20%, 15% each in the UAE and Saudi Mam their population are Shiites. Saudi Shiite uprising in the Shiite revolution was inspired by the sum of the whole region, such as Kuwait, Lebanon, Iraq, and ... Affected by the force of the revolution. There were important reasons for the Shiite areas and to take inspiration from the Iranian revolution. * In countries where the majority of Shiites in Sunni-ruled states and some are non-religious. * General economic, political and discriminatory behavior by the government, complaining and dissatisfied.

80 is the height of the cold war between Iran and Saudi Islamism was the main factor. rights and social justice are respected because they put thought and anxiety.placed. War a good opportunity for them to provide a coordinated response. Because America's policy to establish a security belt, formation of smaller nations came into focus again. In Persian date Bahman 59 after the third summit of Islamic nations in Taif, Saudi Arabic 6 Persian Gulf leaders set up an informal meeting and the agenda for the meeting of Persian Gulf Cooperation stance towards the Iranian Revolution. The Islamic Republic of Iran and the region's dependence and reliance Hhany power, the speed, the proof of the resurrection of the region. Thus, the Coordination Council in foreign policy could reduce the extent of the problem and to suppress insurrection, domestic Khay to perform with more intensity. In 1981, a security agreement signed between Saudi Arabia and Bahrain. Subsequently shield Peninsula and the Persian Gulf Cooperation Council's military arm of the Saudi ruling was formed. Iran, OPEC's position was weakened by damage to the Iranian economy pushed oil prices lower. Iraq Explaining the geographical location ..... live in southern Iraq. There is a strong attraction to the tomb of Imam in Shia Iran. Relations between Iran and Iraq before the 1958 coup Karim Qasim friendly and were both members of the Baghdad Pact.He was later tried and executed in 1975, despite improved relations did not affect the status of the Shiite clerics. Most items can be found in the Emam Khomeini deported to Iraq after guards noticed that it was constantly monitored and prevented direct and simple relationship with the Imam of the Shia in Iraq and around the world were no longer. When Iraq can not found any way of understanding arrived at Imam Khomeini coordination with the Iraqi government expelled. But was expelled from Kuwait after the Kuwaiti Imam Khomeini was prevented. Imam moved to Paris and took over the leadership of the struggle against the Shah in earnest. Raf response to the Iranian government Aligned in Havana meeting between Foreign Minister Yazdi and his doctor was a condition of his return for normalization of relations, including three islands (Lesser Tunb, Greater Tunb and Abu Musa) Qsmts restore the rights of the people and Khuzestan Arvandrud This city on the Shia clerical rule will apply worldwide.Iraq's government was the first in 1948 with two prime Vzsr Shiite government had burst.Iraqi Shiite grievances. So they did justice to political campaigns. Background of Iraqi political parties in the country since independence to the National Bipartisan Shia Grdddr 1929 "Ennahda" later claimed that Muhammad Baqir al-Sadr was the party president. Later, a group of scholars led by Muhammad Baqir al-Sadr gathered they believed young people should think of identity - build your faith and be aware of the danger of foreign influence. It was originally believed that discretion can lead actors to be active against these risks. After the 1958 coup, backed by Ayatollah Mohsen Hakim al-Da'wa Party became active members of the middle class and lower-middle of the Dawa Party. Baghdad and southern Iraq city Kqds more focused. With the rise of the Baath Party since 1968: Dawa war was violent activity since the policy was anti-Islamic secular state. After the death of Ayatollah al-Hakim was exacerbated violence against Shia Imam and he was expelled from Iraq.They announced the return of Imam Musa Sadr in Iraq was placed under his supporters in his home in June uprising orchestrated Rajab.Clergymen and Shiite militants executed or expelled. A number of Islamic communities and seeks to support the fight against government forces attacking the state government to ban the membership of the Dawa Party, the arrests and execution. After the failed assassination of a member organization of the government after the killing of Tariq Aziz, Muhammad Baqir al-Sadr and his sister Bint al-Huda Radstgyr and executed. At this time, 30 thousand Shiites expelled from Iraq and Iran to arrive. After the death of Mohammed Baqir al-Hakim al-Sadr took over the leadership of the Supreme Council of Iraq was created. The Council will continue to fall. Showed a strong reaction with the activities of the Supreme Council of the Iraqi government and executed six relatives Hakim. Struggle for religious purposes and the guerrilla actions of the Shi'ite Supreme Council as a symbol of the opposition.continues after the defeat of Saddam's Kurdish allies in northern popular uprisings swept the holiest cities in southern Iraq, which is known as the First Intifada. But keeping America from Saddam, the Iraqi government severely repressed paid until the fall of Saddam continued pressure on Shia. Arabia Geographical location, human, religious Sunni-majority state Padshahymtlqh most famous tribes of Arabia into a form associated with the Al Saud family. Monarch influential centers of power between the characters, but the real power being divided into tribes of the house of Saud. Minority in Saudi Arabia, there is no single Shia minority in the Sharqiya region, about 700 thousand people who live in and around the city's Shiite minority is particularly sensitive to the extreme sensitivity of the revolution. Location and what are the Shia of the Saudi oil industry is of particular importance to their role. Revolution in Iran and the Shah's regime collapsed, causing panic among the other kings in the Persian Gulf. Iran's military power as a guarantor of stability and security in the Persian Gulf after the British withdrawal in 1971, according to the Nixon Doctrine. With the fall of the Shah of Iran was replaced. Domino theory might fall and the other chiefs were also present.A delegation led by the Secretary General of the Revolution (about Alam al-Islami) sent to Iran. Despite that fail to meet officials did not stay long. To mitigate the effects of the Islamic Revolution in Saudi Arabia, he established certain actions against the advertising agencies, the Persian Gulf Cooperation Council, full support of Iraqi Ba'ath regime during the war, weapons, and shopping .... Part of this procedure. Severe actions against supporters of the revolution in Saudi another part of the procedure. Shiites expelled from the oil company Aramco, banning the use of loudspeakers in mosques, Shia, Shiite leaders identify, inspect homes of people suspected of a sudden, jamming down on Iranian radio and television programs and other measures to deal with the Saudi government the revolution. In contrast to the increased attraction between Sunni Saudi government to inject funds in the Sunni. Met with the Crown Prince and construction projects increased.
Inciting against Shia Salafi youth, despite the distortion induced Shi Shi combat the spread of specific cycle, other measures of Saudi Arabia. The other side of Saudi Arabia and Iran took a dual approach. Dadd and other points where the Iraq war was financed. The war with Iran and the potential for increased reflectivity switching hub revolutions, Saudi Arabia starts to increase its assistance to Iraq. Haji Amir on the other expelled from Iran, the overthrow of the Iranian Jngdh Arabian Airlines escalated the situation. In terms of military strength is enough to deal with Iran's decision was a step ahead in the battle to weaken Iran. Cooperation with the West to reduce the price of oil, killing Iranian pilgrims participate in the efforts to isolate Iran embassies and action. The Hajj and the Islamic Revolution. " " " " Saudis and the Islamic Revolution No legislative elections.Shia apply. these injustices caused to be more influenced by Islamic Revolution. The result is more courage and Shiites across the country. And this led in 1979 to capture some of the dissident Grand Mosque in Mecca and the subsequent wave of unrest swept across the Persian Gulf. In the same year, the Shiite Ashura in public for the first decision to hold that the involvement of the Saudi National Guard, turned violent. In Saudi Arabia, parties, factions and political parties are banned political organization and thus generally have Yafh secret underground organization. Islamic Revolution Organization of Arab Island: " " " " Kuwait Kuwait is located in the Persian Gulf and its population is 70% Sunni and 20% Shia and the rest are from other religions. Between 1756 from Sabah Jaber family live in this country since it achieved independence in 1899 in the Persian Gulf states of consciousness can be said better growth and politics. The relative freedom of the press and assembly Mjvd the growth of knowledge is effective. Six major political groups (gatherings of people, the Islamic injunction, order assembly, independent and democratic platform Kuwait) are active in the country. King of the telegraph in 1340 after the country's independence and the independence it has congratulated the country's territorial integrity and sovereignty protection.would establish the best relations with Iran. * Iran's position in alignment with the interests of OPEC, Kuwait, Iran has supported the country. * Signature Alhzyrh gratified that the Kuwaiti authorities. * Kuwaiti government to maintain the status quo and prevent internal stress, was prevented from entering Kuwait Khomeini. * After the revolution, and reflecting on the world and the region, Kuwait was forced to change its policy and bilateral relations with Iran to act. Kuwait, like other countries in the region, conservative, cautious approach in the first stage of the Iranian Revolution and its foreign minister sent a greeting to Iran. But with America Embassy in Tehran, Iran, Kuwait's foreign policy was in the rotation. Iraq invaded Kuwait, initially declared its neutrality, but later grand Khmayt financial openly supported Iraq. * After the capture of the island by Fav Iran, Kuwait to strengthen the forces of Saddam's Iraq was Bvbyan Islands. * After the war, Iraq's invasion of Kuwait, according to condemn Iraq's invasion of Iran, this would enhance the credibility of Iran. After the revolution, there were changes in the Kuwaiti Shiites welcomed the Kuwaiti Shiites Fhalyt caused concern to officials in Kuwait "A. M." The laws of the Imam ('ra) had lost the initiative was. activities for children, lectures, spiritual, strong political will Jlvgr. government of Kuwait to support the government's move to arrest her compassion, her objection to the arrest Alamkrd. government of Kuwait, the "M" in the country interference in the internal affairs of his unauthorized activities in the nation. following situation was tense relations between the two countries. statements and articles in journals on both sides, the situation was more tense. thousands of Shiites in Kuwait protests overcapsule to attack the embassy bombings in France and America F. bars consequence of this riot.'s National Guard intervened and killed four people. Shia Kuwaiti government to calm them first and then stripped of citizenship and deported many of the Shiite ministers in cabinet can be used. Many Iranian Shia citizens also dismissed. Kuwaiti Shiites are divided into three categories in total. 1 - Shiites calling for regime change in the state of Kuwait after the Kuwaiti citizenship withdrawn, dismissed them. 2 - Shiites in charges. B. Kuwaiti government seeking their rights 3 - The Shiites want to maintain the status quo and the best way they knew their rights and parliamentary activity. In many Kuwaiti government expelled Iranian Shiites would detract from political activity. Bahrain: A third of the population are foreign nationals and foreign nationals of any country are at the forefront of the Iranian border, not dirt. 98% to 70% percent of Muslims are Shia. Although the majority Shiite government is in the hands of the Sunni minority. Revolution and the rise of Shiite passion, Shiites were demanding the right to rule. Informal remarks on the Iranian authorities to provide more context. Bahrain's subsequent support of the Iraq war, Iran and Bahrain which will become darker. Bahraini forces suppress any protests were Shia. Bahraini relations since the Islamic Revolution And relations between the two countries deteriorated. Bahraini authorities have intensified concerns that a security contract with Saudi drawn to them. In 1360 a group of Muslims accused Bahraini security forces of carrying multiple weapons and plotting to overthrow the Bahraini regime arrested. Bahrain's government urged Iranian charge d'affaires was summoned and the relations between the two countries deteriorated. Alak Bahrain imposed by the war, but the practice of neutrality supported Iraq. After the cease-fire resolution 598 and the status of bilateral relations had changed and improved and expanded. Relations between the two countries in 1372 due to the second Embassy visa ban Iranian foreign minister also spoke in support of the territorial claims of the UAE deteriorated. With controlled movements of the Iranian embassy and the coup d'etat in 1375 relations became strained. But with the arrival of Syrian Foreign Minister Farouk Alshr issue, both sides agreed to stop attacks from propagating against each other. Effects on people and the popular revolution in Bahrain: Both before and after the Islamic Revolution in Bahrain's Shiites in the Persian Gulf was the focus of the resurrection of the population - are caused by social and economic islands. (Iranians, and Iranian claims on long island, the Sunni-Shiite divide is added) Such a Slbqh a fundamentalist Shiite revolution in Iran as a powerful movement appeared on the scene. Shia discontent was growing in the 1970s, the increasing dissatisfaction of the following factors can be noted. Accelerating modernity and modernization - pictures of hundreds of foreign workers - economic and social gap - the gap between the cultural and traditional classes of professionals - Expanding city - the decline of traditional values ​​- this would exacerbate grievances. After the revolution of Bahrain carry signs in support of the revolution held huge protests. Imam "Htdy holy" as he introduced his representative in Bahrain. Two major demonstrations in Bahrain holy launched a wave of arrests and deportation protests and unrest in the form of sacred and other content continued. Bahrain's government announced that by 1981 the plot was foiled with the support of Iran said. Syria: Republican system - the ruling Baath Party - Muslim 90% - ten percent Christian - Muslim 74% Sunni and Shia only 2 to 3 percent more in Damascus, Homs and Aleppo residents. Approximately 12% of the astral form. Relations between Syria and Iran before the revolution Syria is Iran's independence it was the recognition of bilateral relations to relations 50s there was no seizure. English nationalism considers the desires of the monarch, and the prime minister of Israel and Syria Skhkhnan in the province in 1960, bilateral relations were strained. But Iran's support for Arab nations on the Arab-Israeli conflict and financial assistance and medical fields tensions in relations with Iran and Syria in Arabic countries. And contract Assad traveled to Iran in 1975. Syria's relations with Iran after the revolution: After the Revolution in Syria among the countries that had a message to Iran's leaders congratulated the victory. And it's supported.
* Volunteers sent to Iran via Syria to Lebanon and Israel went to war and fight.
  
* Iran's support for Syria's support for Lebanon's Shiites risen to apply * Shared sense of common destiny not believe this is linked to the political system. Iran and Syria is entering a new phase in the war. According to the Syrian and Iraqi borders between the two countries and the problems of the Iran-Iraq war had a direct impact on this issue. the war between the two nations Arabic with Iranian and Syrian support of Iran's ethnic groups, but most of Iran would be covered Arabic. * Syria even conservative Arab countries wanted to hold a conference in Jordan to win Arab support for Iraq and Iran to mobilize Hlyh Syrian withdrawal from Iraq's oil pipeline to the Mediterranean, was sent to Iraq to Iran to deliver a severe blow to the economy of oil-free, provided the Syrian oil needs. Jordan: Jordan's relations with Iran after the revolution. Iraq war which it had sought to cut ties. The following factors support the war in Iraq from Jordan. 1 - Financial Assistance to Jordan, Iraq 2 - threats against Syria, Iran, Jordan and Syria support 3 - The need for a strong Iraq and the consequences resulting therefrom for the Jordanian port of Aqaba 4 - King Hussein always played the role of an Arab man and the slogan "the mother of our brothers" would support Iraq. 5 - Jordan was trying to exploit the fruits of spiritual and financial. Finally, in 1359 the government announced a memo to Jordan relations. Iraq gave continuity.
Lebanon Ultra small but strategically critical country in terms of population is very diverse and heterogeneous tribes and sects have been formed. Muslim 48% - 51% Christian, 20% are Shi'a Muslims in this country, with its demographics and its location in one of the world during the past decade has been Khyztryn. The effect of the revolution in Lebanon Parallel to Shiite Iran supports the Lebanese Government to establish a strong relationship with visit to the two countries and was greeted with a welcoming religious circles. Creation of Hezbollah, which is born of the Islamic Revolution in Lebanon, in particular the effects of the presence and support of the country's Shiites. Palestine
British Foreign Secretary Lord Balfour in 1917, promised to create a Jewish homeland in a letter to the Rothschild Zionists were the financiers and the stone masonry. During the uprising of the Palestinian uprising was provided. British rule over a large part of the land, and the state of Israel was founded. Palestinian crisis entered a new phase in the history not only as a problem but as a problem in the Arab world, the Islamic world was made. The country has four major regional and international war has left behind. The 1948 war against Israel in Arabic - the 1956 France - England - Israel against Egypt - Egypt's 1967 war known as the Six Day War against Israel - Jordan and Syria / Egypt's 1973 war against Israel in the name of holy war can be named in this Palestinian conflict and the conflicts and contradictions that will focus on his land. The effects The ideology of revolutionary movements, especially in the Palestinian Territories. In a manner that acknowledges Palestinian leaders, the Iranian revolution was a big change in their method of formation of the new campaign is created. One of the early signs of Imam Khomeini was the defense of the oppressed in Palestine and support Palestinian issue is at the top of the target. With the rise of a popular movement in Iran, anti-Zionism and condemn Israel's relations with the king, the king was one of the aspects of the campaign. Agency attack on Iran by Israel and other sources, it was always on the agenda. Following the testimony, "Mostafa Khomeini" Yasser Arafat sent a message of condolence to the Imam, the Imam also gave Arafat the response telegram. After the revolution and the revolution in Iran was cut off and travel to the Embassy of Palestine became Israel. Revolution slogan "Palestine Today, Iran Tomorrow" against Israel if the complete Tamhv became one of the central policies of the revolutionary leaders. During 1980, two major trends have been shaped by Islamic standards that will play a key role in the subsequent development Ayfad these trends in "Palestinian Islamic Jihad" and "Hamas" is the Muslim Brotherhood was formed. In the 1980s, the impact of Islamic Awakening movements in the Middle East in the West Bank and the Gaza Strip, Palestinian student groups became apparent. Most student elections in universities Palestinian rival Fatah, Islamic bloc won the first, second or the. Further of student groups and many Islamist after the revolution began their activities in the occupied territories. The formation of the Islamic Jihad Movement The founders deeply declaring a jihad organization tried to take inspiration from the lessons., from the principles of jihad, martyrdom, sacrifice for the symbols and slogans of the Shiite Islamic Revolution was introduced as the basic principles of the Palestinian Islamic Jihad. officially movement 1980 Audi was founded by Abdul-Aziz Fathi and shaghaghi. The movement launched several operations against the Zionist regime. Wide protests against the killing of the Al-Aqsa Mosque Ayramy Pilgrims held Hhad example of the Islamic movement in Iran.. Islamic Jihad Movement in the fundamental positions of the three principal axes is inspired. 1 - Islamic Revolution 2 - Legacy of Muslim Brotherhood 3 - The experience of the Egyptian Islamic Jihad
Possible to have the attitude of the Palestinian issue.

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Within the context of neoliberal
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International Relations at the scene, most African countries compared to Asian and European countries minor importance in shaping policy and influencing the course of events had. Thus the attitude of the great powers of the past five decades on the basis of their position and relationship with nature has provided. During the 17/19 relationship with the outside world through the export of African slaves from the mid-19th century until the end of the war was based on colonialism, plunder the country's natural resources.countries of the continent. The hostile reaction to the lack of democratic structures in society, violent and destructive aspect of the democratic structures of governance Shdat African countries that share America's interests would be realized.
• the nature of America's foreign policy:
Following the collapse of the Soviet Union has continued.
Aside from the fact that America's power is based on the power of today's hardware, which is more reliant on soft power within the concepts of American democracy and the market economy. Soft power is the ability to achieve desired results through appeal rather than mandatory.
America's foreign policy is based on a certain set of principles.International, which eventually led to the dispersion stability was oriented. This means that the dominant economic power, the stability of the international financial guarantees.
Another principle of liberal democracy that America's foreign policy is to establish a general set of norms and values ​​that are accepted throughout the world.
• The economic outlook for Dvltsazy:
context required for democracy is formed. The consensus of the political directions on how economic development, political ideology, and the importance of institutions and financial structures, clear face in terms of neoclassical economics is an important means through which the government of America seeks a presence in Brunei It takes a powerful image.countries do. Formations on the political consequences of economic policies that are being undertaken.


• failed states, reflecting the liberal policy of America:
to do.. would.
It must be admitted that such was the financial controller of the sub-Saharan African countries have many problems that are political and economic developments that are set too.
America's foreign aid policy for reform of legitimacy in the international arena and the African elite is having.No political, economic and social communities.
According to the diffusion theory Jhanshvly development patterns in non-Western countries and extends west to the tradition and the modern development of the West as a model to be considered, due to the lack of an efficient government, the lack of comprehensive institutions, traditional values ​​laid down in
Tyvrysm and theoretical challenges missile defense system
In 2000, Bush won the America campaign and the Republican Party's central topic during the past twenty years have emphasized the general attitude of the party. In the domestic field, called the drastic reduction of tax on foreign policy issues and strategic approach to both, a continuation of the policies of Ronald Reagan. Bush aims to reduce the massively destructive nuclear forces, transforming the existing structure, defense, defense, attack the central axis of the new arrangements. Bush today, in an attempt to objectively represent the radical right and the left will be the deployment of missile defense, and he wants to cut 52,000 nuclear warheads in the world.
Nuclear deterrence based on retaliation:
technique for organizing relations between countries on 25 negotiating structure and operation is incidental to the technical approach. One such rule, chance, risk, and chaos on the political performance increases that will eventually lead to political paralysis. Zdslah nuclear movement in the West over the past few decades, the Republican Party, a natural consequence of the doctrine of offensive strategy centered on the relationship between nuclear powers.
America's strategy of governing the doctrine of nuclear deterrence has been based since 1945.America that people had no control over it.
Mutual deterrence, America's choice between suicide and surrender limited. Nuclear deterrence, emphasizing the vulnerability of America is America's limited maneuverability. Thus, the balance of power in the nuclear age was conceived in the womb of the doctrine of mutual deterrence strategy and the need to sleep unacceptable doctrine defense strategy should be centered on the opposition. The logic of mutual deterrence, nuclear strategy should not deprive their attack. Military operations in the region, but also the fear of retaliatory attacks, the cost of failure has cost more points, hit the first stop. So Yi America since World War II, after which they must strengthen their ability to attack in retaliation.
Prevent nuclear war by emphasizing the idea of ​​"anticipated reprisals" must be approved by an absolute must have. Doctrine is based on deterrence strategies reprise the cornerstone of America, which represents its nuclear supremacy practitioners' attitudes in shaping America's defense policy is to strengthen the international position did America and America did not strategic advantage. Events in Vietnam, Carter's weakness against Soviet expansionism as it challenged the proposition that deterrence based on retaliation for Reagan's speech in 1983 formally questioned the doctrine.
His proposal calls for replacing Defense Initiative missile defense doctrine, strategy, offensive and defensive strategy centered around the axis. Hadrpy its absolute security for America's nuclear arsenal was reduced by destruction, deterrence based on retaliation for America's diplomacy is to be passive. As a result of the move towards the establishment of a missile defense planners and policy based on the logic that the laws of physics, logic, rational means leaders and operational efficiency.
Doctrine based defense - missile defense - with a rational stability stability provided replace uncertainty - uncertainty associated with revenge - and thus likely to increase the probability of success is greatly reduced.
not the destruction of ballistic missiles capable of threatening the existence of the interaction but also on the ability of America to consider soil.

• Quest for Absolute Security
The world changed security environment after the collapse of the Soviet Union, the rise of radical conservative America in Congress in 1994, and type of technology within America's military, moving to a new military strategy of the inevitable.
In 1996, Congress commissioned Ramnsld nature of the threat of ballistic missiles against America.
The bill (bill of missile defense) was adopted in February 1999 with a majority vote in Congress and advocates declare that the White House has set up a system of four criteria that must be signed and Clinton signed the bill under.
This means that bill to the new strategic thinking and traditional inhibitions are cast aside. Supporters argue the bill is based on the first cost is less than the cost of defense is to attack the other side, secondly, the possibility of survival after a direct attack ballistic America can be increased.
With the rise of political debate, Bush was leading efforts for the missile defense system, which was supported by the White House.
The new national security team in the White House announced that due to the geographical developments in China, Russia, and the world has changed.
strategy was not afraid to attack America. Therefore will not need to acquire nuclear weapons.
faced.
The defense has certainly suffered.

The nature of terrorism and its
Terrorism as a form of political violence, between war and peace which negates the nature of politics. Terrorism in any shape or form is the result of a strategic decision and rational response to the situation. After an act of terrorism is a rational point of view. Although that may be the root of domestic terrorism, but have international implications. In this regard, it is clear that terrorist attacks on America as a symbol of civilization and power of the West and its security is facing the risk of falls. The attitude of the Bush missile defense to secure the absolute best in terms of Astrar can be used in a nuclear conventional war. But the main problem will be how to deal with terrorism can be internal or external origin?
The terrorist acts of recent decades, terrorism has become a subtle indicator. Changing global conditions caused by the nature and severity of terrorist activities and techniques used in a manner that is qualitatively changed. Um Shynvykyv extremist group in Japan in 1995, anthrax spores can be played on the streets of Tokyo. This constant fear of possible terrorist use of biological weapons became a reality.
Microbial and biological weapons and missile failure
Without denying the possibility of missile defense technology is proved by the fact that there is no possibility of achieving absolute. The best technology in the defense against biological weapons is worthless.Anti-terrorism law passed.
Intifada Palestine and the politics of America
America's policy toward the Palestinians for refusing to pay attention to the historical aspects and legal issues, is based on innovative solutions.policy measures that are not based solely on the Zadbkhsh Palestine Palestinian interests against the State of Israel without regard to ratings and recommendations are presented.
leadership and ideological collapse was exacerbated by the two superpowers.
• foreign policy based on the 'descends position "on the question of Palestine
Jewish immigration to Palestine conflict, which started as a result of the formation mechanisms based on the human tragedy of political and religious heritage of America to pressure the Israeli government's policies. America's foreign policy toward the Palestinians but justice emptiness was filled with the inversion event that the international system has made it possible.The lack of recognition of the Palestinians as a separate people and make them part of a Arabs Nvam knew. Only in 1975, after the State Department announcement that America was changed attitude to the Palestine problem.
• New approach to the Palestinian issue as the heart of the crisis
Looking for détente search for more constructive relations, the government of America at the end of Ford and Kissinger, the issue of Palestine in the form of the Cold War and it was contrary to their interests and Aqayt governing region.America was not meant as any action taken by Kissinger continued to show America's support for Israel to negotiate with the Palestinian Authority has identified three conditions: First, of Arafat to recognize Israel's existence.
Second, to accept UN Resolutions 242 and 338, and the third, to condemn terrorism.
• First Intifada analysis of substantive differences
The first Intifada between Israel and the Palestinians in 1987, necessity of bilateral talks was felt by America. In 1987 the first Flsyn without encouraging the Palestinian Liberation Organization following the killing of an Israeli withdrawal from the occupied spontaneous revolt and they followed it, took the leadership of Arafat and called for the international conference. Arab summit in Algiers, the Palestinians accepted the Tdrjy your positive resolutions 242 and 338 announced after the conference, in Parliament and in Europe Astrasbvrk attended Arafat's acceptance of UN resolutions and their and reject terrorism declared..
• Policy-based threats into opportunities and vice versa.
During the discussion following the substantive differences between the first intifada, Palestinians and Americans dropped events, but there are differences.America's allies Egypt and Saudi Arabia threatened to use a regional rebellion, the Threat to America's interests will pressure Israel to make concessions. But the opportunity to become widespread differences among various Palestinian groups, the gradual coherence analysis which was formed in 1964 with the establishment of the Palestinian resistance.
Oslo in September 1993 that eventually led to the declaration of the "Statement of Principles" and compete agreements Gaza - Palestine Section Zadby Aryja in September 1993 between the two - the State of Israel was based on the 1 - Recognition of Israel by the Palestine Liberation Organization, 2 - Identification Authority with powers limited by a Tamyt Israel
• Passive realism and idealism passive
"Statement of Principles" was the cornerstone of the Clinton administration's policy in Palestine and settle the dispute between the Palestinians and Israel's fourth issue on the basis that: 1 - water 2 - Asylum 3 - Right Back 4 - Jerusalem
Arafat was closed because it was unable to meet the demands of the Americans. This time, the combination of Arafat's policy of passive realism and idealism was passive. So, not being able to persuade the Palestinians to compromise with Israel to achieve success.
• The solution to the problem of agrarian population
After 15 days of negotiations failed.
• Reaction America and the Second Intifada
. The Sharon visit the holy places in East Jerusalem in September 2000 to provide explosion. I followed the uprising on September 29, 2000 and began leaving the al-Aqsa mosque that killed five Palestinians and injured many others. The uprising began when the Roman dominion over the area was shaped America.
With the start of the second intifada, Clinton offered Arafat to turn it into new proposals, some of which include: the establishment of a civilian government in 95 percent of the West Bank and all of Gaza, Palestinian sovereignty over Arab neighborhoods, the Palestinians were not allowed to return to areas under Israel, recognition of Israel's borders and outside the region.
Despite international pressure and urges Clinton, the leader of the Palestinians refused to excuse any confusion.
• Sharon and George Bush the new regional realities

requirements. Arafat was therefore to achieve their rights and to pressure the government to bring America into the context of its regional allies, Egypt and Saudi Arabia can be used.
Globalization: Patterns and institutionalization of Western values
At every juncture in history, certain words, it reflects the nature and substance of history and globalization are among the most Vazhgn shape now. However, one should not forget the fact that globalization is not a new phenomenon but is rooted in the intellectual and material developments in the West.
Renaissance, the religious reformation, the enlightenment and the industrial revolution as four historic milestone in the West in areas of the economy, society, politics and culture, created such a systematic unity value. Three central principles of economics, politics and culture by accepting the legitimacy of the competition, which was formed Diversity norms and must align themselves in the areas indicated above.

historical and social relations between the individual and the situation became clear. Thus, norms, ideas and institutions in various fields aligned with social needs and the nature of the organism assumed.ruling is made.
West is best for the progress of the mental Khmvdgy a period of time and at the same time as the rest of the world a good show.
Thus the West as substantively distinct from other parts of the world and dominate the field in the areas of politics, economy, culture of the East was provided. It was a historic moment that underlie the globalization process in the West began to take shape. Globalization as a social system evacuation West with all the features of the political, economic and cultural areas of the world.
intellectual and institutional framework to build a global reputation.
Purposive rationality, the formation of the initial context of globalization:
be practical. Weber was the positivist theory on the basis of scientific knowledge, actual knowledge, and have only integral values ​​of accepted facts.must accept accountability institutions, actions and accept Western administration.
The Weberian logic, unifying element of modern rationality. In such a framework, the global governance of science and technology are celebrated not only dominated the West on non-Western countries.countries.
• «post-industrial society" secondary context of globalization

Limits of theoretical knowledge in the course of evolution, which is the basis of instrumental rationality represents the victory of capitalism is arising.
formed with the dissemination of instrumental rationality, will evolve.
• End of History "Globalization final
Fukuyama, liberal democracy as the final form of human government is in this sense that the whole ideology of liberal democracy is based on the phenomenon. Fukuyama's theory, like other theories in four dimensions of cognitive, affective, normative reflection and the reflection that has more influence in the formulation of this theory.
The theory on the expression patterns of legitimacy theory, thoughts, perceptions, actions and structures around the western world.the vote of the people after the political and economic activities in the appropriate cultural context and continues. Triumph of liberal democracy in the framework of Western culture has been the fact that the capitalist economic methods and practices of democratic political tool to be effective. This is the beginning of the institutionalization of the hegemonic West Shvdchra on getting people to accept the concept of universality of Western culture in both areas and is continuing. Western values ​​are the same and they act accordingly. In the reception area, frameworks, directions and orientation within the continuity of nature and mind, an objective indicator of the nature and function of culture is given.

American order in the context of globalization
• the globalization of content
Globalization, consolidation and institutionalization of norms in the areas of personal, national, transnational is.
that are distinct from each other but are coaxial.dominance of a particular natural world makes this centralization (single axis of) the main features of a new generalization of the Watson calls it a global empire and the vanishing cultural autonomy, political and economic life in different aspects.
The New Empire of the pervasive and influential of the Roman Empire, the uncertainty has been created based on the structure of an integrated system of cultural, political and economic, which is attached to the famous U.S. Peace.
Cultural dimension of globalization
In fact, in the context of global cultural interaction and conflict.
In light of this interpretation, globalization represents the two aspects simultaneously. Integration of a fault and the other creates the same ultimate end of interpretation leads to assimilation. Cultural integrity within the cultural fault occurs. The same as perceptions of legitimacy and integrity of the fault by removing certain features Mahythay communities and local authorities. If such funds from national and local context and culture blur value will stay the same value to their lives.
Universal moral values, cultural globalization is the main yeast. Moral authority and cultural hegemony of America comes true when he extended a special ethics. The moral of the moral autonomy of the nations of the world Tsvy gone too fast and consequently lose their autonomy. The public broad access to education and it is effective in relation to interconnection.
Globalization and cultural dominance of America and ideological leadership:

The concept of the value of America's ideological leadership in the context of globalization, technological critique of the critique is ideological. The purpose of this particular discourse, considering changing tool and not a replacement. Thus the rational discourse and the discourse of the media and entertainment in the form of videos have appeared.
Meaning in the context of globalization:
The cultural hegemony of America in the form of globalization, the cultural meaning-creation is the creation of their own culture as a meaning-creation Tamyt moral thinkers such as Nietzsche and Foucault is a reflection of this vision is the rule for the area of ​​meaning-creation. From the perspective of social management mechanism (world)


Politics of Globalization:
Political globalization process reflects global displacement of the center of gravity is power. The occurrence of this process reflects a new approach to sovereignty and the historical transformation of the state. Today, we're Stemming the conquest of America, which it attributes to the loss of territorial attitude and are territorial divisions.

Unequal rights and unequal abilities: justified globalization

changes and differences between countries inside and outside the government, which generally means a replacement of the sole rule of hegemonic rule rather numerous.
In any case, it must be said that globalization has confirmed the dominance order within the U.S. hegemonic power and America's leadership on the ruins of concepts such as sovereignty, the autonomy - MELLAT not be included in is.



"America's foreign policy and taking advantage of opportunities in Iraq"
• Removing restrictions for Iraq and America:
Greater maneuverability and continued to dominate most of the interest is.
To eliminate any grounds for violating America's friends in the region and also to avoid jeopardizing the interests of America.
Opportunity for America:
Pursue the goals of America said that Iraq could have almost all marginalized issues..
Third, the weak U.S. leaders were able to increase the regional countries like Iraq to achieve inhibition of anti-Israel ideology.
America since the Clinton administration, according to the Iraqi government or classified as non Lbrayn Madeleine is found., And was always intended to be in that situation or to remove Saddam Hussein and his fellow rebel power to attempt to maintain or at least his eliminate Iraq's invasion of Kuwait and the Persian Gulf War gave them the opportunity.
But his position to undermine America's Nfvzgzary control tool has benefited from the following:
1 - 2 of sanctions - to support internal dissidents
1 - Economic sanctions:

The economic sanctions regime has the money needed to rebuild infrastructure destroyed by the Baathist regime, and the economy is not.
Apart from economic and military sanctions regime that harmed structures and produce less than half the Nakhasl reduce human injuries Fravay also imposed on Iraq.

2 - support for internal opposition:
Contradictions of ethnic, linguistic and religious policies of the authoritarian regime in Iraq has made America the internal conditions favorable for supporting Saddam opposition groups to destabilize his regime.It is also a trans-regional.

Actually belong to Saddam Hussein in the Iraqi National Congress opposition, led by the Supreme Council of Islamic Revolution and North Korea and Taliban fighters are.

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